Cellular Physiology Basics

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36 Questions

What organelle is often referred to as the 'powerhouse of the cell'?

Mitochondria

Where do peroxisomes originate from?

Endoplasmic reticulum

Which organelle contains digestive enzymes and is involved in breaking down cellular waste?

Lysosomes

Which component is responsible for supporting the cytoplasm and is composed of microtubules and filaments?

Cytoskeleton

Where is DNA located in a cell?

Nucleus

Which type of cellular movement involves cells using cilia in a wave-like motion?

Ciliary movement

What is the main feature that distinguishes eukaryotic cells from procariotic cells?

Presence of a nucleus

Which organelle is responsible for synthesizing various substances in the cell and comes in rough and smooth forms?

Endoplasmic reticulum

What component of the cell membrane is responsible for regulating membrane permeability?

Colesterol

Which of the following is NOT found in the cytoplasm of a cell?

Ribosomes

What is the main function of the Golgi apparatus in a cell?

Processing and sorting substances from the ER

Which organelle in the cell has two forms, rough and smooth, with one being involved in ribosome synthesis?

Endoplasmic reticulum

¿Cuál es la función principal de las proteínas estructurales en la célula?

Proporcionan el citoesqueleto de los orgánulos

¿Qué sustancias inorgánicas son consideradas electrolitos que se encuentran en las células?

Mg, fosfato, bicarbonato, sulfato

¿Cuál es el componente celular fundamental presente en la mayoría de las células, excepto en adipocitos?

Agua

¿Cuál es la función principal del núcleo de la célula?

Almacenar el código hereditario

¿Qué característica distingue principalmente a las células eucariotas de las procariotas?

Presencia de núcleo definido

¿Qué sustancias componen principalmente el protoplasma de una célula?

Agua y electrolitos

¿Cuál es el componente principal de las membranas celulares que proporciona una barrera y evita el movimiento de sustancias hidrosolubles?

Fosfolípidos

¿Cuál es el componente que representa el 55% de la masa total de las membranas celulares?

Proteínas

¿Cuál de las siguientes afirmaciones es cierta sobre los peroxisomas?

Se cree que se forman por autorreplicación en lugar de proceder del aparato de Golgi.

¿Cuál es la función principal de las vesículas secretoras en una célula?

Liberar sustancias secretoras formadas en RE-Golgi hacia el citoplasma.

¿Qué tipo de proteínas de membrana actúan como transportadoras de sustancias y receptores de productos químicos hidrosolubles?

Integrales

¿Cuál es el orgánulo en el que se procesan moléculas y se transportan a sus destinos en la célula?

Retículo endoplasmático

¿Qué característica distingue a los lisosomas de otras organelas celulares?

Tienen una membrana llena de gránulos pequeños que impide el contacto de enzimas con sustancias celulares.

¿Qué función desempeñan los ribosomas unidos al retículo endoplasmático rugoso?

Síntesis de proteínas

¿Qué organelo celular se destaca por ser la central energética de la célula?

Mitocondria

¿Qué porcentaje de la masa total de las membranas celulares corresponde al colesterol?

13%

¿Cuál es la función principal del núcleo en una célula?

Controlar y promover la reproducción celular a través del ADN.

¿Cuál es la principal función del retículo endoplasmático rugoso (granular) en una célula?

Sintetizar sustancias lipídicas y procesos enzimáticos celulares.

How do large substances like proteins or bacteria enter cells?

By receptor-mediated endocytosis

What generates the force to form vesicles during endocytosis?

Actin and myosin

What is the opposite process of endocytosis?

Exocytosis

Which proteins are involved in mediating the fusion of vesicles with the cell membrane?

Dynamin and syntaxin

What is the role of calcium in cellular processes such as exocytosis?

Mediates vesicle fusion with the membrane

Which cellular process involves the cellular release of products that are too large to exit through transport or membrane channels?

Exocytosis

Study Notes

  • Eduardo Paiva welcomes viewers to his cellular physiology class, invites them to follow him on social media, and explains that they will be discussing the cell and its parts.
  • Cells are the structural and functional units of an organism.
  • Cells are divided into procariotic (bacteria and archaea) and eukaryotic (animal, plant, fungi, and protista) cells. Human bodies are composed mostly of eukaryotic cells.
  • Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, while procariotic cells do not.
  • A eukaryotic cell divides into membrane, nucleus, nuclear membrane, cytoplasm, and organelles such as mitochondria, cytoskeleton, and endoplasmic reticulum.
  • The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer, with hydrophilic heads facing the water and hydrophobic tails repelling it. Colesterol regulates membrane permeability. Albume proteins are integral to the membrane, while peripheral proteins do not penetrate it.
  • The cytoplasm is a gelatinous liquid containing proteins, electrolytes, and glucose.
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle responsible for synthesizing various substances in the cell. It comes in two forms: rough (ER-R) and smooth (ER-S). ER-R is attached to the nucleus and forms ribosomes, while ER-S synthesizes lipids.
  • The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that processes and sorts substances produced by the ER and packages them into vesicles for transport. It is particularly prominent in secretory cells.
  • Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes and break down cellular waste, damaged organelles, and foreign substances. They are produced by the Golgi apparatus.
  • Mitochondria are organelles responsible for generating ATP through cellular respiration. They are often referred to as the powerhouse of the cell.
  • Peroxisomes are organelles similar to lysosomes but have different functions. They originate from the endoplasmic reticulum and contain oxidases instead of hydrolases. They are involved in fatty acid oxidation and detoxification.
  • Cells utilize both hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes for digestion, similar to how humans have a digestive system and pancreatic enzymes.
  • Cells have their own energy production and waste elimination systems, with mitochondria responsible for producing ATP and peroxisomes for detoxification.
  • The text mentions various cellular processes and components, including the cytoskeleton, glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the role of calcium in cellular signaling.- Mitochondria have an external smooth membrane without an inner limiting membrane, with the intermembrane space and the intramatrix containing the matrix mitochondrial with its own DNA for self-replication.
  • Mitochondria produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from food substrates such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins through the process of cellular respiration.
  • The mitochondrion's outer membrane is responsible for transporting ions like sodium, potassium, calcium, and hydrogen using ATP.
  • ATP is also used for the synthesis of chemical compounds and for mechanical work, such as the head of the myosin generating contractions through actin and myosin filaments.
  • The cytoplasm is supported by the cytoskeleton, which is composed of microtubules and filaments like actin and intermediaries like keratin.
  • The nucleus, located in the cytoplasm, acts as a control center, contains DNA, and determines the characteristics of proteins produced by a cell, including those found in the cytoplasm and those involved in cellular reproduction.
  • The nucleus contains DNA in its cytoplasm, known as nucleoplasm, and RNA messenger produced by the nucleus controls protein synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Cellular movement, or locomotion, includes two types: amoeboid movement, where cells create false feet and move by endocytosis and exocytosis, and ciliary movement, where cells move by using cilia in a wave-like motion, primarily found in cells of the respiratory and reproductive systems.

Learn about the structure and functions of cells, including eukaryotic and procariotic cells, organelles like mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes, as well as cellular processes like glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.

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