Cellular Differentiation and Stem Cells Quiz

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28 Questions

Which organelle is the site of protein synthesis in the cell?

Ribosomes

What is one of the main functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)?

Synthesizing phospholipids

What gives the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) its bumpy appearance?

Embedded granules called ribosomes

What is the condition of having pairs of chromosomes known as?

Diploidy

Which phase of the cell cycle is characterized by the division of genetic material and the formation of two new nuclei?

Mitosis

Which type of endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes?

Smooth ER

During which phase does the cell prepare for and complete cell division?

Mitosis

What type of hormones are synthesized by the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

Steroid hormones

Which cellular organelle serves as the starting point for protein synthesis?

Ribosomes

What is the period of the cell cycle during which the cell is not dividing called?

Interphase

Which phase in the cell cycle involves dividing the cytoplasm into two distinctive cells?

Cytokinesis

What follows G1 phase for cells that will divide again?

S phase

What is cellular differentiation?

The process by which unspecialized cells become specialized

What are stem cells?

Unspecialized cells that can divide without limit and differentiate into specialized cells

What is the characteristic of totipotent stem cells?

They have the potential to differentiate into any cell needed for growth and development

How do stem cells differ from specialized cells?

Stem cells are unspecialized while specialized cells have distinct functions

What happens if there is a disruption of homeostatic balance in cell division?

Cancerous growths can occur

Why are stem cells categorized based on their potential to differentiate?

To understand their capabilities in becoming specialized cells

What type of stem cells are extracted from embryos and are pluripotent?

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)

Which type of stem cells are limited in differentiation to the types of cells found in specific tissues like bone marrow and skin?

Adult stem cells from bone marrow

Where are stem cells obtained from deciduous teeth (baby teeth) classified as?

Multipotent

What type of stem cells are genetically reprogrammed adult cells that function like embryonic stem cells?

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)

What is the primary mechanism by which genes are turned 'on' or 'off'?

Transcription factors

What is the main goal of stem cell research mentioned in the text?

To find ways to regenerate and repair cellular damage

Which type of cells can differentiate into a number of specialized cells formed by the tissue they are part of?

Stem cells

What happens to most adult cells over time due to aging?

They lose their ability to divide and repair themselves

Which proteins affect the binding of RNA polymerase to specific genes on the DNA molecule?

Transcription factors

What is the role of transcription factors in gene expression regulation?

Promote or inhibit gene transcription

Study Notes

Cell Biology

  • The site of protein synthesis in the cell is the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER).
  • One of the main functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is to synthesize lipids, detoxify drugs, and regulate calcium levels.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) gets its bumpy appearance due to the presence of ribosomes attached to its surface.
  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) lacks ribosomes.

Cell Cycle

  • The phase of the cell cycle characterized by the division of genetic material and the formation of two new nuclei is mitosis.
  • The phase where the cell prepares for and completes cell division is the M phase.
  • The period of the cell cycle during which the cell is not dividing is called interphase.
  • The phase that involves dividing the cytoplasm into two distinctive cells is cytokinesis.
  • The G2 phase follows the G1 phase for cells that will divide again.

Cellular Differentiation and Stem Cells

  • Cellular differentiation is the process by which cells become specialized to perform specific functions.
  • Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to differentiate into specialized cells.
  • Totipotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into a complete organism.
  • Stem cells differ from specialized cells in their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types.
  • Disruption of homeostatic balance in cell division can lead to cancer or other diseases.

Types of Stem Cells

  • Embryonic stem cells are extracted from embryos and are pluripotent, meaning they can differentiate into any cell type.
  • Adult stem cells are limited in their differentiation to the types of cells found in specific tissues, such as bone marrow and skin.
  • Stem cells obtained from deciduous teeth (baby teeth) are classified as mesenchymal stem cells.
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are genetically reprogrammed adult cells that function like embryonic stem cells.

Gene Expression Regulation

  • The primary mechanism by which genes are turned 'on' or 'off' is through the binding of transcription factors to specific genes on the DNA molecule.
  • Transcription factors affect the binding of RNA polymerase to specific genes on the DNA molecule, regulating gene expression.
  • The main goal of stem cell research is to understand how to control cellular differentiation for therapeutic purposes.

Cellular Aging

  • Most adult cells lose their ability to divide over time due to aging.

Gene Regulation

  • Transcription factors play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by binding to specific genes on the DNA molecule.

Test your knowledge on cellular differentiation and stem cells by learning how generalized cells become specialized, distinguishing between categories of stem cells, and understanding the development of complex organisms from a single cell.

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