Lecture 2+3: Cell Cycle Regulation and Cancer Development + transcriptional regulation

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Which stage of the cell cycle is characterized by cells remaining metabolically active but not proliferating?

G0 phase

During which stage of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the center of the cell?

Metaphase

Which phase of the cell cycle involves cell growth and preparation for DNA replication?

G1 phase

What is the major checkpoint in mammalian cells between G1 and S phases?

Checkpoint to determine if it is appropriate to divide

What is the role of the Metaphase-to-Anaphase transition checkpoint?

To ensure all chromatids are properly attached to spindles

Which enzyme phosphorylates other proteins or DNA in the cell?

Kinase

What is the function of cyclins in the cell cycle?

Control cell progression by activating Cdks

During which phase does DNA get synthesized in the cell cycle?

Interphase

Which phase of the cell cycle is most relevant to cancer therapy?

Interphase

In which phase of the cell cycle do cells divide at different rates?

Interphase

Which phase of the cell cycle involves ~1 hour in M phase and ~12 hours in S Phase in fast-growing human cells?

Interphase

What is the function of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein as described in the text?

Promoting sequestering of E2F

Which protein is targeted for ubiquitylation and destruction by the SCF complex?

CKIs

What is the role of c-myc in cancer development?

Serving as a powerful proto-oncogene

How does the SCF complex target specific proteins for ubiquitylation?

Via phosphorylation of specific amino acids

What is the role of the SCF complex in the cell cycle?

Targets proteins for degradation

How does the p53 protein contribute to cell cycle control?

Halts mitosis at the G2 checkpoint

What is the main function of tumor suppressor genes in the cell cycle?

Prevent uncontrolled cell growth

Which of the following best describes the function of Ubiquitinases in the cell cycle?

Tag proteins for degradation

What is the function of tumor suppressor genes in the cell cycle?

Inhibit uncontrolled passage through the cell cycle

How is p53 protein involved in preventing cancer?

Triggering apoptosis in cells with damaged DNA

What is the role of an oncogene in cancer development?

Regulate normal cell cycle progression

How do Ubiquitinases contribute to cell cycle regulation?

Regulate protein levels by targeted degradation

What is encoded by only 1.5% of the entire human genome according to the text?

20,000 protein-coding genes

In E. coli, how many subunits does the RNA polymerase consist of?

4 subunits

What is the main factor that cells need to regulate in order to respond to a changing environment according to the text?

Expression of genes

How do cells avoid the inefficiency of using 20,000 different polymerases for gene expression?

By using a single RNA polymerase with 4 subunits

How does acetylation of histones affect the transcriptional barrier?

Weakens the transcriptional barrier

Which enzyme is responsible for placing acetyl groups on histones?

Histone acetyl transferase

What is the impact of methylation on DNA transcription?

Strengthens the transcriptional barrier

How are most transcription factors translocated into the nucleus?

After activation and translocation from the cytoplasm

What is the role of cAMP in turning on the lac operon in E. coli?

It binds to the CAP protein, initiating an allosteric change that allows it to associate with DNA.

How is the lac operon turned off in E. coli?

Binding of lactose metabolite to the repressor

How can turning off a gene be pharmacologically exploited in treating cancer?

Turning off genes that are causing inappropriate cell cycle progression

In gene regulation, what does it mean to turn on a gene?

Recruiting an active polymerase to the promoter to increase transcription

What is the significance of regulating gene expression for pharmacology?

To target specific genes and proteins for therapeutic purposes

In the context of the lactose operon in E.coli, what does it mean to 'turn-off' a gene?

To prevent transcription of genes involved in lactose utilization

How can turning off a gene be exploited pharmacologically to treat diseases like cancer?

By inhibiting overactive signaling pathways related to cancer

What differentiates cell-to-cell and species-to-species variations?

The combination of genes that are expressed

How is gene expression related to pharmacology based on the text?

Pharmacological changes in gene expression can lead to therapeutic benefits as seen in cancer treatment

What is the regulatory mechanism of the lactose (lac) operon in E. coli according to the text?

Positive and negative regulation both play a role

How can gene expression be pharmacologically exploited for treating cancer according to the text?

By altering gene expression to achieve therapeutic benefits in cancer treatment

What happens to gene regulation when transcription factors are translocated into the nucleus from the cytoplasm?

Transcription factors interact with DNA leading to changes in gene expression

What event triggers the upregulation of cAMP in bacteria to activate the lac operon?

Low glucose levels

How is the lac operon activated when lactose is present in bacteria?

Lactose metabolite binding to a repressor

In gene regulation, what does it mean to turn off a gene?

Preventing an active polymerase from binding the promoter

How can turning on a gene be pharmacologically exploited to treat diseases like cancer?

Turning on a gene that halts cell cycle progression

Test your knowledge on cell cycle regulation, cancer development, and potential targets for cancer therapies. Learn about activating phosphates, inhibitory phosphates, phosphatases, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, and more. Lecture 2: 1-23 Lecture 3: 14-40

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