2.2 Health Assessment

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38 Questions

Which of the following is NOT a goal of cardiac evaluation mentioned in the text?

Identify primary causes of heart murmurs

What is the most common cause of Mitral Stenosis as per the text?

Rheumatic fever

At what size does a normal mitral valve orifice start to develop symptoms according to the text?

2 cm2

Which symptom is NOT typically associated with Mitral Stenosis?

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)

What classic physical exam finding suggests Mitral Regurgitation?

Holosystolic murmur at the apex

Which condition can Mitral Valve Prolapse be associated with?

Marfan's Syndrome

True or False: Symptoms of mitral stenosis usually result from a rapid development of the disease.

False

True or False: Mitral Regurgitation symptoms are often specific and easily elicited during patient interviews.

False

True or False: Mitral stenosis can lead to pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure.

True

Which symptom is typically seen in patients with Aortic Stenosis but without Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)?

Chest pain

What is the most common cause of Aortic Stenosis?

Atherosclerosis

Why can many patients with Aortic Stenosis be asymptomatic?

As a result of adequate valve area

Where is the murmur typically heard in patients with Aortic Stenosis?

2nd right intercostal space

What additional heart sounds may be present in patients with significant Aortic Stenosis?

S3 and S4

What does the contour of the diamond-shaped systolic murmur in Aortic Stenosis relate to?

The severity of pressure gradient across the valve

Which diagnostic test is considered necessary if an echocardiogram yields inconclusive results in a suspected case of Aortic Stenosis?

Cardiac catheterization

What range of pressure, in mmHg, is typically associated with symptoms in patients with Aortic Stenosis?

25-40 mmHg

What specific feature on an EKG may indicate Aortic Stenosis?

Tall R waves in V1-V6

Which patient population is most likely to have congenital bicuspid aortic valve leading to stenosis?

Young individuals with a family history of heart disease

Which of the following symptoms is NOT typically seen in patients with Aortic Stenosis?

Cough

What is the key difference between the presentation of Aortic Stenosis in elderly patients compared to younger patients?

Predominance of Angina

What is the critical factor that determines the severity of the pressure gradient across the Aortic valve in Aortic Stenosis?

Contour of the Murmur

Which diagnostic imaging technique is most appropriate for assessing LV function in Aortic Stenosis?

Echocardiogram

What additional heart sound may be heard in patients with significant Aortic Stenosis if there is significant cardiac dysfunction?

S3 Gallop

What range of pressure, in mmHg, is typically associated with symptoms in patients with Aortic Stenosis?

$20-40$ mmHg

Which additional heart sound may be heard in patients with mild Aortic Stenosis but not in severe cases?

S4 Gallop

In which location is the typical murmur of Aortic Stenosis best heard?

$2^{nd}$ left intercostal space

Which of the following symptoms can be indicative of severe Aortic Stenosis?

$S3$ Sound

What is the main risk factor for developing Aortic Stenosis in young individuals?

$ ext{Genetic Predisposition}$

What is the classic sign of Mitral Stenosis observed on a point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS)?

Doming of anterior valve leaflet

Which condition is often assumed in the presence of isolated Mitral Regurgitation until proven otherwise?

Ischemic heart disease

What is a common symptom associated with Mitral Valve Prolapse that is related to complications such as embolic events?

Anxiety

In Mitral Regurgitation, what happens to a portion of every stroke volume?

Regurgitated through an incompetent mitral valve back into the left atrium

What is a typical physical exam finding associated with significant Mitral Regurgitation?

Holosystolic murmur at the apex

What diagnostic test is considered the gold standard for evaluating Mitral Stenosis and its severity?

Echocardiogram

'High pitched, blowing, loud S3 radiating to axilla' is a description typically associated with which cardiac condition?

Mitral Regurgitation

'Decreased forward LV stroke volume and CO' are hallmarks of which type of heart valve disease?

Mitral Regurgitation

Which symptom typically appears in Mitral Stenosis patients related to elevated left atrial pressure?

Dyspnea on exertion (DOE)

This quiz covers the goals of cardiac evaluation, including identifying the severity of cardiac disease, impaired myocardial contractility, and organ involvement. It also discusses the functional assessment of cardiac auscultation and the conditions it helps to identify such as valvular heart disease, heart failure, and dysrhythmias.

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