BSMS Module 204: Living Anatomy of the Upper Limb

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Which tendons insert into the distal phalanges of digits 2-5?

Flexor digitorum profundus tendons

During an ultrasound examination of the shoulder, where should the probe be placed to image the rotator cuff muscles?

Over the glenohumeral joint

What is a common clinical use of ultrasound in musculoskeletal clinics?

Guiding injections or biopsies

In which position should the arm be during ultrasound imaging of the rotator cuff muscles?

Medially rotated position

What is one of the pathologies that can be identified using ultrasound imaging of the upper limb?

Ganglion cysts

Where should the probe be placed for imaging the supraspinatus muscle during abduction of the arm?

Over the medial arm

When imaging the forearm at the elbow joint, in which position should the forearm be?


Which structures should be identified during ultrasound imaging of the anterior forearm and carpal tunnel?

Capitulum, head of the radius, and common extensor origin muscles

How should the arm be positioned for ultrasound imaging of the supraspinatus muscle?

Arm abducted to 30–40 degrees

During ultrasound imaging of the arm, in which position is it easier to image the medial side?

Arm abducted

Where should the probe be placed for imaging the brachial artery and veins?

Over the medial arm

Which of the following is NOT a learning outcome of the living anatomy session on the upper limb?

Demonstrate how to perform an ultrasound examination on the upper limb

Which type of joint is the sternoclavicular joint?

Saddle joint

What limb movements can cause rotation at the sternoclavicular joint?

Abduction and adduction of the arm

What is a simple clinical test for assessing the function of the deltoid muscle?

Ask the person to abduct their glenohumeral joint against resistance

In which direction does the acromioclavicular joint move when you abduct your arm above your head?


By asking a patient to perform abduction of the glenohumeral joint against resistance, which nerve are you primarily testing?

Axillary nerve

Which test can be used to assess muscle function in a clinical setting?

Observing muscle strength during a hand grip test

Which muscles are responsible for causing flexion at the elbow joint?

Biceps and Brachialis

Where can you identify the muscles, vessels, and nerves of the upper limb using ultrasound?

Along the borders of the anatomical snuff box

In the half-pronated position, which muscle performs flexion at the elbow joint?


What is the position of the radius in relation to the ulna when the forearm is pronated?

The radius crosses over the ulna

Which carpal bones are involved in forming the radiocarpal joint of the wrist?

Scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum

Which joints in the hand are classified as condylar joints?

Metacarpophalangeal joints

What type of joint is found between the scaphoid bone and other carpal bones?

Synovial joint

Which muscle is best palpated in the anatomical snuff box?

Extensor pollicis longus

What is the action of the palmar interossei muscles on the digits?


Which tendons are best identified on the dorsal side of the hand with the digits extended?

Extensor digitorum tendons

What is a clinical test to assess the palmar interossei muscle integrity?

Ask the patient to oppose thumb and little finger

Study the joints, muscles, and movements of the upper limb in this living anatomy session. Learn to identify skeletal components, describe range of movements, and determine functions using ultrasound examination.

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