BMS2037 Cellular Microbiology and Virology: Virus Life Cycle Overview

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42 Questions

Which process is responsible for virus budding by cellular exocytosis?

Vesicular transport

What is responsible for directing assembly and budding of HIV at the cell membrane?

Envelope proteins

Which type of viral egress involves the formation of double-membrane vesicles?

Non-lytic viral egress

What can antivirals target in order to inhibit many steps of viral transmission?

Viral envelope proteins

During which phase of the viral life cycle does the attachment to host cells occur?

Inoculation phase

What step occurs during the penetration phase of the viral life cycle?

Virus entry and uncoating

When does the manufacture of viral components take place in the viral life cycle?

Maturation phase

What is formed during the assembly step in the viral life cycle?

Virus particles (virions)

In which phase of the viral life cycle do new virus particles (virions) increase before release occurs?

Maturation phase

In which organelle does replication of the genetic material occur for dsDNA viruses like Herpes simplex viruses?

Nucleus

Which type of virus replication is characterized by a cytoplasmic-only process with no DNA form?

DsRNA virus

What is the enzyme responsible for replicating the genetic material in Retroviruses?

Reverse Transcriptase

Which type of virus replication can occur either in the cytoplasm or within the nucleus?

Ss (-) RNA virus

Where does viral assembly typically happen in an infected cell?

Cytoplasm

What is the primary mode of virus release and transmission for enveloped viruses?

Exocytosis

Which viral infection was associated with microcephaly in infants during the Brazil epidemic of 2016?

Zika virus

What type of receptor initiates the penetration of viral particles into cells during virus entry?

Entry receptor

Why are RNA viruses considered an exception to the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?

Their molecular biology does not involve DNA

What is responsible for the replication of genetic material in dsDNA gapped viruses?

DNA dependent DNA polymerase encoded by host cells

Which organelle plays a role in viral assembly and maturation for enveloped viruses?

Golgi apparatus

Viral proteins responsible for directing assembly and budding are not involved in membrane curvature.

False

Exosomes are not associated with non-lytic viral egress.

False

Antivirals can target only one step in the viral transmission process.

False

HIV Budding Assembly is unrelated to the formation of lentivirus nucleocapsid linked to the budding process.

False

During the maturation phase of the viral life cycle, new virus particles (virions) are formed before release occurs.

True

Viruses can 'grow' in the same way as cells do.

False

The attachment phase of the viral life cycle involves the manufacture of viral components such as viral proteins and new genetic materials.

False

Viruses rely on their host cell to provide the necessary tools for their replication and assembly.

True

Viral egress by the formation of double-membrane vesicles is a characteristic of all types of viruses.

False

The penetration phase of the viral life cycle occurs after the manufacture of viral proteins and genetic materials.

True

All viruses on the planet follow the rule of making mRNA that can be read by host ribosomes, with no known exception?

True

The cytoplasm is an easy environment for viruses to penetrate due to its spacious nature?

False

Retroviruses can bind to 16 different receptors?

True

Flaviviruses like Zika virus replicate their genetic material in the cell nucleus?

False

Herpes simplex viruses utilize DNA dependent RNA polymerase encoded by host cells for replication of their genetic material?

False

Virus budding by cellular exocytosis involves the formation of double-membrane vesicles?

False

All (+) RNA is mRNA?

False

Influenza virus, a ss (-) RNA virus, can replicate its genetic material in both cytoplasmic and nuclear environments?

True

Virus assembly and budding typically occur in the cell membrane?

False

RNA viruses are considered an exception to the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology because their molecular biology does not involve DNA?

True

Viral genomes can fall into any of the seven classes of viral genomes based on their structure?

True

Viral release by cellular exocytosis often involves the use of the secretory pathway for assembly, maturation, and egress from the cell?

True

Study Notes

  • Dr. Marine Petit discusses virus life cycle in the context of cellular microbiology and virology.
  • A virus is not capable of independent growth and replication; it depends on the host cell for these functions.
  • Virus life cycle consists of attachment and entry, protein translation, genome replication, and virus assembly and release.
  • Virus attachment and entry is facilitated by recognition of attachment and entry receptors by glycoproteins on the surface of the virus.
  • Uncoating occurs in the cytoplasm or within the nucleus, and can be facilitated by the hijacking of the microtubule network.
  • Virus protein translation is carried out using the host cell's translation machinery.
  • Virus genomes are diverse and include DNA and RNA forms, each with unique replication strategies.
  • dsDNA viruses have DNA-dependent DNA and RNA polymerases encoded by the host cells for genome replication.
  • RNA viruses have RNA-dependent RNA polymerases encoded by the virus for replication.
  • Virus assembly occurs in the infected cell, with viral factories being created using the membrane.
  • Virus release and transmission can occur through cellular exocytosis, lytic or non-lytic methods, and cell-to-cell contact.
  • Antivirals can target various stages of the virus life cycle for inhibition.
  • Understanding viruses requires knowledge of cell biology and molecular biology, and virology is an integrative science.

This lecture overview covers the introduction to virus life cycle, including virus entry and uncoating, virus protein translation, genome replication, virus assembly, virus release and transmission. It emphasizes the dependency of viruses on host cells and the need for understanding cell biology and molecular biology to comprehend viruses.

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