Biosphere Reserves and Wildlife Conservation Projects in India

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205 Questions

What percentage of the world's mangrove forests are found in India?

7%

What is the main difference between natural vegetation and planted vegetation?

Natural vegetation is left undisturbed over time, while planted vegetation is under human supervision.

What is the main reason for the remarkable diversity of life forms in India?

Great diversity of ecosystems

Which Indian region has the highest forest cover concentration according to the forest cover classification?

Region of high concentration

Which region of India is known for tropical rainforests?

Western Ghats and Andaman Nicobar Islands

What is the main aim of the forest policy mentioned in the text?

Maintaining environmental stability

Which type of forest is found in the foothills of the Himalayas?

Deciduous forests

What type of forests are found in the desert and semi-desert areas of Rajasthan?

Cacti forests

What type of trees are predominant in the higher hill ranges of northeastern India and West Bengal?

Oak and Chestnut

What is the difference between forest area and actual forest cover in India?

Forest area includes all land with trees, while actual forest cover is the area with canopy forests.

Which activity has caused an adverse effect on wildlife and its habitat?

Grazing by domestic cattle

Which of the following is NOT a purpose of social forestry as mentioned in the text?

Industrial forestry

Which states fall under the region of very low concentration in terms of forest cover?

Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, and Delhi

What type of forests are found in the deltaic regions of India?

Tropical rainforests

Which act provides the main legal framework for the conservation and protection of wildlife in India?

Wildlife Protection Act

Which tree is known for being a durable wood mainly used in construction activity in the Himalayan range?

Deodar

What do tribal people primarily rely on forests for?

Building houses

What is the forest cover percentage in the northeastern states of India?

More than 40%

At what altitude do Blue pine and spruce appear in the Himalayas?

2,225-3,048 m

How does the vegetation of India vary across different regions?

Based on climate and soil variations

Which category of social forestry emphasizes the promotion of agro-forestry and community-forestry?

Rural forestry

What is the primary objective of Project Tiger launched in 1973?

To conserve tiger populations

What do tribal districts account for in terms of the total forest cover of the country?

59.61%

Which tribes extensively use the pastures in the higher reaches of the Himalayas for transhumance?

Bhotiyas and Gaddis

What types of forests can be found in the Montane regions of India?

Montane forests

Which government initiative aims to conserve wild elephant populations?

Project Elephant

Which Indian states have forest cover percentages in the range of 10-20%?

Tamil Nadu and West Bengal

What is the main objective of farm forestry as mentioned in the text?

Growing trees for commercial and non-commercial purposes on farm lands

What was one of the reasons for the declining wildlife numbers mentioned in the text?

Hunting by the elite for sport

What type of vegetation is found at higher altitudes on the southern slopes of the Himalayas?

Alpine forests

What is the forest cover percentage in Lakshadweep according to the text?

0%

In what year was the Wildlife Act comprehensively amended to make punishments more stringent?

1991

Which type of forestry combines trees with agriculture to produce food, fodder, fuel, timber, and fruit?

Agro-forestry

'The actual forest cover in India is only 21.05%.' What does this statement imply?

'There is a slight difference between the notified forest area and the actual area with canopy forests.'

In which area of Peninsular India are temperate forests found closer to the tropics?

Western Ghats

What economic significance do magnolia, laurel, cinchona, and wattle trees hold?

Medicinal plants

'Most of the forests in Punjab and Haryana have been cleared for cultivation.' Why is this significant?

'It showcases the lack of importance given to forest conservation in those states.'

What is the purpose of community forestry as mentioned in the text?

Providing benefits to the community as a whole

How many wildlife sanctuaries are there in India according to the text?

535

What is protected as water-fowl habitats under the Ramsar Convention in India?

Chilika Lake and Keoladeo National Park

What is the aim of UNESCO’s ‘Man and Biosphere Programme’ according to the text?

Conservation of flora and fauna

What is one benefit that tribal communities derive from forests according to the text?

Nourishing roots and wild game

What type of plants grow in mangrove forests along coasts?

Salt-tolerant plants

Why has wildlife conservation been considered significant according to the text?

To preserve natural heritage for future generations

What does social forestry aim to achieve according to the text?

Environmental, social, and rural development

Which international programme recognises Biosphere Reserves?

UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Programme

When was the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve established?

1986

How many Biosphere Reserves are there in India?

18

Which state in India is the Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve located in?

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Which Biosphere Reserve is the southernmost in India?

Great Nicobar

Which Biosphere Reserve is famous for being the first one established in India?

Nilgiri

Which Biosphere Reserve includes parts of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka?

Nanda Devi

Which Biosphere Reserve is located in the delta of Ganges and Brahmaputra river system?

Sunderban

In which year was the Manas Biosphere Reserve established?

1988

Which Indian state is not home to any Biosphere Reserve from the list provided?

Himachal Pradesh

Which type of forest is characterized by trees reaching great heights up to 60 m or above and appear green all year round?

Tropical Evergreen Forests

Which type of forest is found in areas with an annual precipitation of over 200 cm and a mean annual temperature above 22°C?

Semi Evergreen Forests

Which species would you likely find in the Moist Deciduous forests of India?

Teak, Sal, Amla

Which forests in India are known as the monsoon forests due to their widespread distribution?

Tropical Deciduous Forests

In which regions do Dry Deciduous forests cover vast areas in India?

Plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

Which forest type is characterized by plants remaining leafless for most of the year and having a scrub vegetation appearance?

Tropical Thorn Forests

Which forest type occurs in mountainous areas due to the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude?

Montane Forests

What is the main difference between Moist and Dry Deciduous forests in terms of rainfall?

Moist Deciduous: rainfall between 100-200 cm; Dry Deciduous: rainfall between 70-100 cm

Which region in India receives less than 50 cm of rainfall and has Tropical Thorn Forests?

Punjab and Haryana

Which habitat type is predominant in the Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve?

Mangrove forests

What is the major forest type found in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve?

Temperate forests

Which endangered animal species is not mentioned as inhabiting the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve?

Snow leopard

Which biosphere reserve in India has the highest altitude range?

Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

Which biosphere reserve is known for being one of the world’s richest regions from a marine biodiversity perspective?

Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve

What is a significant threat to the ecosystem in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve?

Forest fires

Which of the following animals is not listed as an inhabitant of the Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve?

Snowcock

What is a key characteristic of the mangrove forests in the Sunderbans?

Safe homes for a large number of species

What distinguishes the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve from others in terms of its biodiversity?

Presence of sea cow

What makes the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve distinct in terms of altitude?

Highest altitude range in India

What distinguishes natural vegetation from planted vegetation?

Natural vegetation is undisturbed over a long time to adjust to climate and soil conditions.

In which forest type would you expect to find trees reaching great heights of 60 meters or more and staying green throughout the year?

Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen forests

Which region in India is known for its cacti, a wide variety of bushes, and thorny vegetation?

Rajasthan

What vegetation type characterizes the forest cover in Punjab and Haryana?

Deciduous forests

What factor leads to the variation in India's vegetation from one region to another?

Altitude

Which forest type is predominant in the deltaic regions of India?

Littoral and Swamp forests

What percentage of India's land area is covered by forests according to state records?

23.28%

What is the primary difference between forest area and actual forest cover in India?

Existence of trees

Which region in India is categorized by forest cover concentration of 10-20%?

Southern states (Tamil Nadu, West Bengal)

What is the range of forest cover percentage in the northeastern states of India?

>30%

Why is forest conservation considered vital according to the text?

To maintain ecological balance

In what year did the Government of India adopt a forest policy emphasizing sustainable forest management?

1988

Which state has zero per cent forest area according to the text?

Lakshadweep

What is the forest cover percentage in Jammu and Kashmir according to the text?

<10%

What is the main purpose of social forestry as mentioned in the text?

To involve communities in tree-raising and provide benefits to the community

What is the primary focus of farm forestry according to the text?

Encouraging small and medium farmers to grow trees for commercial and non-commercial purposes

Which type of forestry combines agriculture with raising trees on the same land?

Agro-Forestry

What does community forestry involve according to the text?

Raising trees on public or community lands for the benefit of the community

How does farm forestry differ from social forestry based on the information provided?

Social forestry encourages agro-forestry, while farm forestry focuses on tree-growing by farmers

Which type of forests are predominant in the higher hill ranges of northeastern India and hilly areas of West Bengal?

Coniferous forests

At what altitudes do blue pine and spruce trees typically appear in the Himalayas?

2,225-3,048 m

What type of forests are found in the foothills of the Himalayas?

Deciduous forests

Which tree species grows mainly in the western part of the Himalayan range and is highly valued for its durable wood used in construction activity?

Deodar

In which altitude zone are temperate grasslands also found in the Himalayan region?

1,000-2,000 m

What distinguishes Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen forests in terms of their height and appearance?

They reach great heights up to 60 m or above and appear green all year round.

Which forest type is prevalent in areas with annual precipitation above 200 cm and mean annual temperature above 22°C?

Tropical Evergreen Forests

Which forests are found in regions with rainfall between 70-200 cm and include species like Teak, Sal, and Shisham?

Tropical Deciduous Forests

What is a common characteristic of Dry Deciduous forests in India?

Trees remain leafless during the dry season.

Which forest type is characterized by plants remaining leafless for most of the year and a scrub vegetation appearance?

Tropical Thorn Forests

In which regions of India would one primarily find Tropical Thorn Forests?

South west Punjab and Madhya Pradesh

What is the main distinction between Moist Deciduous and Dry Deciduous forests in India?

Annual precipitation levels

Which forest type is more pronounced in regions receiving rainfall between 100-200 cm?

Moist Deciduous Forests

What is the primary indicator for the distribution of Montane forests in India?

Temperature gradient with altitude

What distinguishes Semi-Evergreen forests from Tropical Evergreen forests in terms of their location?

More common in regions with less rainfall

What is the main purpose of the Wildlife Act enacted in India?

To provide legal support for wildlife conservation areas

What significant step has the government taken to conserve tiger populations in India?

Project Tiger

What is the primary objective of Project Elephant launched by the Indian government?

To assist states with wild elephant populations

What is the main aim of UNESCO's 'Man and Biosphere Programme' in collaboration with India?

To preserve areas of biological importance as natural heritage

Which initiative focuses on conserving wild elephant populations in India?

Project Elephant

What is the significance of the comprehensive amendment to the Wildlife Act in 1991?

Strengthened punishments and added conservation provisions

Which initiative focuses on ensuring viable tiger populations in India?

'Project Tiger'

What is the primary goal of 'Project Tiger' initiated by the Indian government?

'Ensure maintenance of viable tiger population'

'Project Elephant' assists states with which type of population?

Wild elephant populations

What major purpose does the Wildlife Act serve in India?

Protect endangered species and conservation areas

What is the main aim of a Biosphere Reserve as per the text?

Protecting identified viable populations of specific species

Which Biosphere Reserve is known for encompassing sanctuary complexes and forested hill slopes in India?

Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

In which state of India is the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve located?

Tamil Nadu

Which Biosphere Reserve is famous for being the first established in India?

Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

What does UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Programme aim to achieve?

Conserving natural ecosystems globally

Where is the Panna Biosphere Reserve located?

Madhya Pradesh

Which Biosphere Reserve is situated in parts of Sikkim?

Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve

What is the primary objective of a Biosphere Reserve within the framework of UNESCO's MAB Programme?

'Facilitating conservation and sustainable development'

Which type of forests characterize the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve according to the text?

Dry and moist deciduous forests

Among the plants and animals listed, which species is NOT specifically mentioned as found in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve?

Snow leopard

Which Biosphere Reserve is characterized by mangrove forests, swamps, and forested islands?

Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve

What is the primary difference between the biodiversity focus of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve compared to the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve?

Presence of sea cow (Dugong dugon)

In which Indian state is the Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve located?

West Bengal

Which of the following describes the vegetation found in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve?

Temperate forest

'Temperate forest' is an example of what type of vegetation found in biosphere reserves according to the text?

'Deciduous forest'

'Thorny forest' is most likely to be found in which type of biosphere reserve based on the text?

'Tropical Thorn Forests'

'Sea cow (Dugong dugon)' is a species associated with which biosphere reserve from India?

'Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve'

Which biosphere reserve is known for hosting nearly 200 Royal Bengal tigers?

Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve

What type of forests are characterized by plants remaining leafless for most of the year and having a scrub vegetation appearance in India?

Tropical Thorn forests

In which altitude zone are temperate grasslands also found in the Himalayan region of India?

Above the montane forests

Which forest type characterizes the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve according to the text?

Tropical Evergreen and Semi Evergreen forests

What economic significance do magnolia, laurel, cinchona, and wattle trees hold in India's forest ecosystem?

Medicinal plants

What is the main aim of UNESCO’s ‘Man and Biosphere Programme’ according to the text?

To ensure sustainable development using local knowledge and resources

Why has wildlife conservation been considered significant in India according to the text?

To maintain biodiversity and ecological balance

Which vegetation type is predominant between 1,500-1,750 m in the higher hill ranges of northeastern India and hilly areas of West Bengal?

Wet temperate type of forests

At what altitude do pine forests, with Chir Pine as a prominent commercial tree, develop in the higher hill zones?

1,500-1,750 m

Which species of trees are known to sustain the famous Kashmir handicrafts and belong to the zone discussed in the text?

Deodar and walnut

At what altitude range do Alpine forests and pastures start transitioning in the mentioned region?

3,000-4,000 m

Which tribes extensively use pastures in the higher reaches of the Himalayas for transhumance according to the text?

Bhotiyas and Gaddis

Which forest type is characterized by a significant presence of Blue pine and spruce at altitudes of 2,225-3,048 m?

Alpine forests

'Sholas' are primarily associated with which hill ranges in India?

Nilgiris

Which forest type in India is found in areas with an annual precipitation of over 200 cm and a mean annual temperature above 22°C?

Tropical Evergreen Forests

What distinguishes Semi-Evergreen forests from Tropical Evergreen forests in terms of their location?

The Semi-Evergreen forests are located in the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats and Odisha.

At what altitudes do blue pine and spruce trees typically appear in the Himalayas?

Above 2000 meters

What is the primary focus of farm forestry according to the text?

Combining agriculture with raising trees on the same land

Which region in India is known for its cacti, a wide variety of bushes, and thorny vegetation?

Western Rajasthan

Which habitat type is predominant in the Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve?

Mangrove Forests

What significant step has the government taken to conserve tiger populations in India?

Introducing stricter penalties for wildlife offenses

What distinguishes Semi-Evergreen forests from Tropical Evergreen forests in terms of their tree structure?

Semi-Evergreen forests have well-stratified layers closer to the ground.

In which regions do Dry Deciduous forests cover vast areas in India?

Peninsular plateau and northern Indian plains

Which forest type is characterized by plants remaining leafless for most of the year and having a scrub vegetation appearance?

Tropical Thorn Forests

What is the primary difference between forest area and actual forest cover in India?

Forest area refers to the total land area covered by forests, while actual forest cover refers to the area occupied by forests with canopy.

Which state in India has the highest forest cover concentration according to the forest cover classification?

Himachal Pradesh

What is the significance of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in terms of forest cover in India?

They have the highest forest cover in India.

Which region in India is classified as having very low concentration of forest cover?

< 10%

What is the primary objective of the Government's forest policy as mentioned in the text?

To emphasize sustainable forest management for conservation and expansion of forest reserves.

What is the percentage of actual forest cover in India according to the India State of Forest Report 2011?

21.05%

Which Indian state has zero percent forest area according to state records?

Lakshadweep

What is the main purpose of the Government's forest conservation policy?

To conserve and expand forest reserves while meeting local needs.

Which region in India would be classified under 'the region of medium concentration' based on forest cover percentage?

20-40%

In which states would one find forests with a canopy according to the definition provided in the text?

Tamil Nadu and West Bengal

What was the main focus of the comprehensive amendment to the Wildlife Act in 1991?

To impose stricter penalties for wildlife-related offenses

Why is it significant that the Project Tiger was initially launched in nine tiger reserves?

To focus conservation efforts in specific core areas

Which of the following is NOT an objective of Project Elephant launched in 1992?

To promote elephant hunting as a sport

What is the main purpose of UNESCO's 'Man and Biosphere Programme' in collaboration with India?

To conserve wildlife and promote sustainable development

What significant action has the Government of India taken in collaboration with UNESCO's 'Man and Biosphere Programme'?

Launching projects to conserve wildlife and habitats

Why is it crucial for every individual to understand the significance of wildlife conservation according to the text?

To raise awareness and promote conservation efforts

What is the primary impact of human activities on the habitat and numbers of wildlife species?

Disturbing habitats and decreasing wildlife numbers significantly

What is the main purpose of social forestry as mentioned in the text?

Enhancing environmental, social, and rural development

How do tribal communities primarily benefit from forests?

By using forests as a source of food and materials for livelihood

What type of forestry involves the raising of trees on public or community land for the benefit of the entire community?

Community forestry

What is the primary aim of farm forestry based on the information provided?

To encourage farmers to grow trees on their lands for various purposes

How does community forestry differ from farm forestry according to the text?

Community forestry involves public or community land, while farm forestry involves individual farm lands.

Which activity is NOT a part of social forestry projects based on the classification provided by the National Commission on Agriculture?

Industrial logging

What distinguishes agro-forestry from community forestry based on their objectives?

Agro-forestry combines agriculture with tree planting, while community forestry targets public lands.

What makes urban forestry different from rural and farm forestry according to the National Commission on Agriculture's classification?

Urban forestry targets city areas for tree planting, while rural and farm forestry focus on rural development.

What role do tribal communities play in forest conservation?

Protecting forests through traditional knowledge and participation in conservation efforts

Which type of forests are found in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve according to the text?

Dry and moist deciduous forests

What distinguishes the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve's major forest types?

Temperate characteristics

Which of the following animals is NOT mentioned as inhabiting the Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve?

Snow leopards

What is the primary characteristic of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve's marine biodiversity?

Rich coral reefs

Which Biosphere Reserve houses the largest known population of Lion-tailed macaque according to the text?

Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

What is distinctive about the vegetation in the Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve?

Mangrove forests

Which specific animal species is adapted to the saline and fresh water environment in the Sunderbans?

Dugong

"Heritiera fomes" is a species valued for its timber found in which Biosphere Reserve?

Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve

What distinguishes the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve from the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve in terms of flora?

"Rhododendron" orchids found in Nilgiri BR vs. temperate forests in Nanda Devi BR

Which habitat type is NOT mentioned as present in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve according to the text?

Alpine forests

What was the primary objective of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve as mentioned in the text?

To conserve viable population of elephants in their natural habitat

Which of the following is NOT a Biosphere Reserve located in Tamil Nadu?

Panna

Where is the Dehang Debang Biosphere Reserve located as per the text?

Arunachal Pradesh

Which Biosphere Reserve covers the southernmost island of Andaman and Nicobar Islands?

Great Nicobar

What makes the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve unique according to the text?

It extends from Rameswaram island to Kaniyakumari in Tamil Nadu

In which state is the Cold Desert Biosphere Reserve located?

Himachal Pradesh

What is the main emphasis of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve based on the text?

Conservation of forested hill slopes

Which Biosphere Reserve is known for being situated in parts of Chittoor and Kadapa Districts?

Seshachalam

What sets the Kachchh Biosphere Reserve apart based on the text?

It encompasses desert and semi-desert areas

Which project focuses on conserving Himalayan Musk deer populations?

Project Hangul

Explore the initiatives for wildlife conservation in India, including Biosphere Reserves and projects like Crocodile Breeding Project, Project Hangul, and conservation of Himalayan Musk deer. Learn about the objectives and significance of Biosphere Reserves in protecting natural habitats.

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