quiz image

26.2

MagnificentComet avatar
MagnificentComet
·

Start Quiz

Study Flashcards

46 Questions

Which of the following vitamins is NOT stored in the body?

Vitamin C

What is the primary function of iodine in the body?

Synthesizing thyroid hormones

What is the net ATP yield from the complete oxidation of one glucose molecule in cellular respiration?

36 ATP

Which of the following stages of metabolism involves the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones?

Catabolism

What is the primary function of electrolytes like sodium and chloride in the body?

Maintaining hydration

What is the process by which glucose is broken down into pyruvate?

Glycolysis

What is the primary reason why protein is used as fuel in the body?

Insufficient carbohydrate or fat available

What is the term for the breakdown of protein to form urea, which is then released from the body in urine?

Deamination

What is the role of anabolic hormones in protein synthesis?

Accelerate protein synthesis

What is the characteristic of water-soluble vitamins?

Are absorbed with water

What is the term for the state in which the rate of protein synthesis is greater than the rate of protein breakdown?

Positive nitrogen balance

What is the role of vitamins in the body?

Help the body use nutrients

What is the primary function of soluble fiber in the body?

To reduce blood cholesterol levels

Which of the following is NOT a function of lipids in the body?

To regulate blood sugar levels

What is the difference between complete and incomplete proteins?

Complete proteins contain all essential amino acids, while incomplete proteins lack some

What is the primary function of prostaglandins in the body?

To regulate blood pressure

What is the primary use of glucose in the body?

To produce energy for neurons and RBCs

What is the function of cholesterol in the body?

To stabilize cell membranes

What is the primary function of magnesium salts in bone?

To harden bone

What is the net result of the catabolism of glucose in cellular respiration?

The synthesis of ATP and water

Which of the following minerals is essential for oxygen binding to hemoglobin?

Iron

What is the primary function of iodine in the body?

To facilitate thyroid hormone synthesis

What is the term for the biochemical reactions inside cells involving nutrients?

Metabolism

Which of the following stages of metabolism involves the synthesis of lipids, proteins, and glycogen?

Cellular processing

What is the primary function of glucose in neurons and RBCs?

To provide energy for the synthesis of ATP

Which of the following is a function of phospholipids in the body?

To form the myelin sheaths around neurons

What is the role of omega-3 fatty acids in the body?

To reduce inflammation

What is the primary function of cholesterol in cell membranes?

To stabilize cell membranes

What is the characteristic of insoluble fiber in the diet?

It provides roughage and helps to promote bowel regularity

What is the primary function of proteins in the body?

To produce hormones, enzymes, and antibodies

Which of the following hormones accelerates protein synthesis?

Growth Hormone

What is the primary consequence of inadequate caloric intake on protein synthesis?

Protein is used as fuel

What is the role of intrinsic factor in vitamin absorption?

It is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12

What is the term for the state in which the rate of protein breakdown exceeds the rate of protein synthesis?

Negative nitrogen balance

What is the function of vitamins in the body?

To help the body use nutrients and act as coenzymes

What is the consequence of deamination of protein?

Formation of urea

What is the consequence of a negative nitrogen balance in the body?

Breakdown of proteins exceeding synthesis for energy

Why are proteins not stored in the body?

Because they are synthesized as needed

What is the role of anabolic hormones in protein metabolism?

To accelerate protein synthesis in tissues

What is the term for the state in which the rate of protein synthesis equals the rate of protein breakdown?

Nitrogen equilibrium

What is the primary function of vitamins in the body?

To help the body use nutrients

What is the consequence of inadequate caloric intake on protein synthesis?

Protein is used as fuel for energy

What is the term for the breakdown of protein to form urea, which is then released from the body in urine?

Deamination

What is the characteristic of water-soluble vitamins?

They are absorbed with water

What is the role of the 'all-or-none' rule in protein synthesis?

Ensuring all amino acids are present for protein synthesis to occur

What is the function of hormones in protein metabolism?

To regulate protein synthesis and breakdown

Study Notes

Nutrition and Metabolism

  • Nutrients: substances in food that promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair
  • Major nutrients: carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
  • Other nutrients: vitamins, minerals, and water

Carbohydrates

  • Dietary sources: starch, sugars, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber
  • Uses: glucose is the fuel used by cells to make ATP; excess glucose is converted to glycogen or fat and stored
  • Importance: neurons and RBCs rely almost entirely upon glucose

Lipids

  • Dietary sources: triglycerides, cholesterol, and essential fatty acids (Omega 3's and Omega 6's)
  • Essential uses: help absorb fat-soluble vitamins, major fuel of hepatocytes and skeletal muscle, and phospholipids are essential in myelin sheaths and all cell membranes
  • Functions of fatty deposits: protective cushions, insulating layer, and concentrated source of energy
  • Regulatory functions of prostaglandins: smooth muscle contraction, control of blood pressure, and inflammation

Proteins

  • Dietary sources: complete proteins (eggs, milk, fish, and most meats), incomplete proteins (legumes, nuts, and cereals)
  • Importance: production of hormones, enzymes, clotting factor, and antibodies; formation of hemoglobin; structural materials
  • All-or-none rule: all amino acids needed must be present for protein synthesis to occur
  • Adequacy of caloric intake: protein will be used as fuel if there is insufficient carbohydrate or fat available
  • Nitrogen balance: rate of protein synthesis equals the rate of protein breakdown in a healthy body

Vitamins

  • Organic compounds crucial in helping the body use nutrients
  • Most function as coenzymes
  • Two types: water-soluble vitamins (B complex and C) and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K)
  • Vitamins A, C, and E act as antioxidants

Minerals

  • Seven required in moderate amounts: calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and magnesium
  • Others required in trace amounts
  • Work with nutrients to ensure proper body functioning
  • Examples: calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium salts harden bone; iron is essential for oxygen binding to hemoglobin; iodine is necessary for thyroid hormone synthesis; sodium and chloride are major electrolytes in the blood

Metabolism

  • Biochemical reactions inside cells involving nutrients
  • Two types of reactions: anabolism (synthesis of large molecules from small ones) and catabolism (hydrolysis of complex structures to simpler ones)
  • Cellular respiration: catabolism of food fuels and capture of energy to form ATP in cells
  • Stages of metabolism: digestion, absorption, and transport to tissues; cellular processing; and oxidative breakdown of intermediates into CO2, water, and ATP
  • Pathways of cellular respiration for carbohydrate metabolism: oxidation of glucose (C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36 ATP + heat)

Test your knowledge of nutrition and metabolism, including the different types of nutrients, their dietary sources, and their functions in the body.

Make Your Own Quizzes and Flashcards

Convert your notes into interactive study material.

Get started for free
Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser