Biology Chapter 1: Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants - Alternation of Generations

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What is the dominant generation in higher plants?

What is the ploidy of the sporophyte in higher plants?

What does the sporophyte produce?

What is the result of the union of male and female gametes?

What does the zygote develop into in the life cycle of higher plants?

What are the two different life stages in the alternation of generations life cycle?

What is the main function of the gametophyte stage in the life cycle of lower plants?

In which plant group is the gametophyte the dominant generation?

Describe the process of spore production in the life cycle of lower plants.

What is the outcome of fertilization in the life cycle of lower plants?

What is the primary method of reproduction in lower plants?

What is the main reason for the less frequent occurrence of asexual reproduction in higher plants?

How can asexual reproduction occur in higher plants?

What are the specialized reproductive organs in higher plants called?

What does sexual reproduction in plants involve?

What is sexual reproduction in plants?

Where are male and female gametes produced in flowering plants?

What is the transfer of male gametes to female gametes called?

What is the result of the fusion of male and female gametes in plants?

What is the process by which the zygote develops into an embryo in plants?

Summary

Biology Chapter 1: Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants

Alternation of Generations

Alternation of generations is a life cycle strategy common in plants, algae, and fungi, where plants alternate between two different life stages or generations in their life cycle. This life cycle includes a haploid stage called the gametophyte and a diploid stage called the sporophyte. The alternation of generations is essential for the reproduction process in plants and is adapted to various plant groups.

Lower Plants

In lower plants, such as bryophytes (mosses) and other non-vascular plants, the gametophyte is the dominant generation and is haploid in nature. The life cycle of lower plants typically consists of the following stages:

  1. Haploid Gametophyte: The gametophyte is a multicellular haploid life-cycle stage that produces male and female gametes.
  2. Fertilization: The male and female gametes unite during fertilization, forming a diploid zygote.
  3. Diploid Sporophyte: The zygote develops into a diploid sporophyte, which is the dominant generation in lower plants.
  4. Spore Production: The sporophyte produces haploid spores through meiosis.
  5. New Gametophyte: The spore germinates into a new gametophyte, completing the alternation cycle.

Higher Plants

In higher plants, such as trees and grasses, the sporophyte is the dominant generation and is diploid in nature. The life cycle of higher plants typically consists of the following stages:

  1. Diploid Sporophyte: The sporophyte is a multicellular diploid life-cycle stage that produces haploid spores.
  2. Spore Germination: The spore germinates into a haploid gametophyte.
  3. Haploid Gametophyte: The gametophyte is a multicellular haploid life-cycle stage that produces male and female gametes.
  4. Fertilization: The male and female gametes unite during fertilization, forming a diploid zygote.
  5. New Sporophyte: The zygote develops into a new diploid sporophyte, completing the alternation cycle.

The alternation of generations allows plants to adapt to various environments and reproduce both sexually and asexually, ensuring their survival and reproduction.

Description

Explore the concept of alternation of generations in lower and higher plants, including the life cycle stages of haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte. Understand how this strategy is essential for the reproduction process in plants and its adaptation to various plant groups.

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