Batch Processing Operating System Concepts

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What is the purpose of batch processing OS?

To execute similar jobs as a group

Which card is considered the last card of a job in JCL?

$END

What is a drawback of batch processing OS related to CPU and I/O speed?

Inefficient use of CPU

How does the Resident Monitor in batch processing OS automatically arrange jobs?

Based on job similarity

What is the main purpose of Job Sequencing Control Card Interpreter?

To handle job sequence order

Which measure of O.S. efficiency indicates the time interval between job submission and job completion by CPU?

Turnaround time

In a Time Sharing Operating System, what is one of the advantages it offers?

Reduced response time

What is a characteristic of Symmetric Multiprocessing Systems?

All processors run an identical copy of the OS

Which type of system has more than one processor in close communication, sharing resources like the computer bus and memory?

Parallel Systems

What is a characteristic of Asymmetric Multiprocessing Systems?

Master processor assigns tasks to slave processors

In Parallel Systems, what happens if one processor fails?

The system halts

What differentiates Distributed Operating Systems from Symmetric and Asymmetric Multiprocessing Systems?

Processors do not share clock and memory

What is the main function of an Operating System?

Managing the computer hardware

Which component is NOT typically part of an Operating System?

End User

What is the role of the Bootstrap Program in a computer system?

Initialize all aspects of the system

Which statement best describes one of the goals of an Operating System?

Being convenient for the user

What does the Operating System NOT manage?

End User interactions

Why does an Operating System always reside in memory?

To prevent errors and improper use of the computer

Which function is responsible for the generation of traces, error messages, and other debugging facilities in an operating system?

Error Detection

In early systems without operating systems, what was the common method of loading programs?

Program loaded via card deck

What is a drawback of early systems without batch processing?

Low throughput

Which feature is responsible for automatically loading, running, and dumping user jobs in batch processing?

Resident monitor

What does simple batch processing involve in terms of user interaction with the operator?

User gives program to the operator

Which function of an operating system is responsible for managing the allocation of resources?

Memory Management

What is the main function of Distributed OS according to Dr. P.S. Tanwar?

Resource Sharing

Which type of system has well-defined, fixed time constraints as described by Dr. P.S. Tanwar?

Real Time OS

Which type of Real Time O.S. is less restrictive and commonly used for multimedia projects according to Dr. P.S. Tanwar?

Soft Real Time O.S.

What is the purpose of Dual Mode Operation in computer systems as outlined by Dr. P.S. Tanwar?

Protect OS from Malfunction

Which of the following is NOT a type of system that can be controlled by Real Time OS as stated by Dr. P.S. Tanwar?

Data Encryption Networks

In the context of computer systems, what does ROM usage signify according to Dr. P.S. Tanwar?

No Virtual Memory Support

Study Notes

Operating System

  • An Operating System (OS) is a system software that manages computer hardware and provides a basis for application programs, acting as an intermediary between users and hardware.

Goals of Operating System

  • Convenient for users and efficient for hardware.

Components of OS

  • Hardware
  • OS
  • Application Software
  • User

Functions of Operating System

  • Process Management
  • Memory Management
  • I/O Management
  • Security and Protection
  • File Management
  • Job Priority System
  • Job Switching
  • Understanding commands and instructions
  • Providing an easier user interface
  • Resource Allocation
  • Error Detection

Early Systems (Without OS)

  • Hardware was expensive; no operating systems existed
  • One user at a console
  • One function at a time (computation, think/response)
  • Program loaded via card deck
  • Libraries of device drivers (for I/O)
  • User debugs at console

Early Systems Drawbacks

  • Low throughput
  • More turn around time

Batch Processing OS

  • Hardware is expensive, humans are cheap
  • Simple batch processing: load program, run, print results, dump, repeat
  • User gives program (cards or tape) to the operator, who schedules the jobs
  • Resident monitor automatically loads, runs, dumps user jobs
  • Requires memory management (relocation) and protection
  • More efficient use of hardware, but debugging is more difficult (from dumps)

Batch Processing OS Jobs

  • Jobs with similar requirements were batched together and run through the computer as a group.

Batch Processing OS Drawbacks

  • Inefficient use of CPU
  • Speed mismatch between Fast CPU and slow I/O devices
  • Not user-friendly
  • If an error occurs while a Job is in execution, it can be found only after the execution of all jobs
  • Resource utilization is not optimum
  • Strict Job Sequencing is required

Efficiency Measures of OS

  • Throughput: number of processes per unit time
  • CPU Burst time: actual time required to complete the process by CPU
  • Turnaround time: time interval between job submission and job completion by CPU
  • Waiting time: total waiting time in the Ready Queue to be executed by CPU
  • Response time: time interval between Job submission and First Response time given by CPU

Types of OS

  • Batch Processing OS
  • Multiprogramming OS
  • Distributed OS
  • Real-time OS

Distributed OS

  • Loosely coupled systems
  • Processors may vary in size and function
  • They may include microprocessors, workstations, minicomputers, and large general-purpose computers
  • Processors are referred to as sites, nodes

Distributed OS Functions

  • Resource Sharing
  • Computation Speedup
  • Reliability
  • Communication

Real-time OS

  • Rigid time requirement on the operation of a processor or the flow of data
  • Real-time OS has well-defined, fixed time constraints
  • Processing must be done within the defined constraints or the system will fail

Real-time OS Types

  • Soft Real-time OS: less restrictive type of OS
  • Hard Real-time OS: guarantees that critical tasks complete on time

Real-time OS Uses

  • Scientific experiments
  • Medical imaging systems
  • Industrial control systems
  • Home appliance controllers
  • Weapon systems
  • Flight simulators

Learn about batch processing in operating systems, including job cards, Job Control Language (JCL), executing programs, loading programs, and resident monitors.

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