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Bacterial Sources of Infection and Detection Methods Quiz

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66 Questions

What does Brucella cause in ungulates?

Spontaneous abortion

Where can Brucella be caught from according to the text?

Livestock

Which bacterium is responsible for recycling sulfur in the environment?

Thiobacillus

What is a characteristic of Zoogloeal organisms mentioned in the text?

They sink in compact flocks

Which class does the genus Burkholderia belong to?

Beta

What is the method used to identify bacteria in a sample without culturing them?

Flow Cytometry

What is the technique that compares DNA sequences of base pairs to identify bacteria?

DNA Sequencing

Which phylum contains over 2000 species of bacteria and is named after a Greek God?

Proteobacteria

What is the primary method by which some members of Proteobacteria obtain energy?

Photosynthesis

What physical property does Flow Cytometry detect in bacteria?

Electrical Charges

Which technique led to significant advancements in identifying new bacterial species?

DNA Sequencing

What is the genus of the bacteria that causes whooping cough?

Bordetella

What is the most common symptom of N. gonorrhea infection?

Painful urination

How does Bordetella pertussis affect the respiratory tract?

Causes paralysis of cilia

Which bacteria species can be spread from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, labor, or nursing?

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

What is a potential consequence of Neisseria meningitidis infection?

Learning disabilities

What distinguishes Neisseria gonorrhoeae from other bacteria mentioned in the text?

It is treatable with penicillin

What is the only way to differentiate between the serovars in Salmonella enterica infected warm-blooded animals?

By performing a serology test (antigen-antibody)

Which of the following statements about Salmonella typhimurium is true?

It is the cause of typhoid fever

Which bacterium can be easily spread and only requires a small amount to cause infection?

Shigella

What is a common symptom of Shigella infection?

Watery diarrhea and vomiting

Where is Yersinia enterolitica typically found?

In domestic animals

What can Yersinia enterolitica infection be mistaken for in adults?

Appendicitis

What is a common disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes?

Scarlet fever

Which bacterium is associated with nosocomial infections like UTIs and wounds?

Enterococcus faecalis

What is a common source of antibiotics among Actinobacteria?

Fresh dirt

Which bacterial species is responsible for causing foodborne illness that is particularly serious for pregnant women?

Listeria monocytogenes

Which bacterium is characterized by being pleomorphic with no definitive shape and resembling fried egg colonies?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

What type of infections are commonly caused by Mycoplasma hominis?

Urogenital infections

What is the primary source of energy for chemotrophs mentioned in the text?

Inorganic chemicals

Which bacterium is responsible for causing cat scratch fever?

Bartonella

What is the outcome of the 1st step that Nitrobacter performs in the nitrogen cycle?

Ammonia (NH3) is oxidized into nitrite (NO2)

Which bacterial genus interferes with egg development in insects?

Rickettsia

What is the impact of Agrobacterium inserting a plasmid into a plant?

Causes the plant to develop a tumor

What is the role of Rhizobium in the symbiotic relationship with plants?

Converts ammonium to sugars

Which bacterial family includes facultative anaerobes that can inhibit the intestinal tract and produce bacteriocins?

Enterobacteriaceae

Which bacteria is considered the 'work horse of microbiology' and is an indicator of food and water contamination?

Escherichia coli

What type of syndrome can develop in individuals who consume the deadly strain 0157:H7 of a certain bacterium?

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

Which bacterium is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, particularly cattle and poultry, and has many serovars?

Salmonella enterica

Which bacterial genus includes species that are almost all pathogens and are common in the intestinal tracts of animals?

Salmonella

What type of infection can be caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli through the production of enterotoxins?

Gastrointestinal Infection

Salmonella bongori is commonly found in which type of animals along with birds like chickens?

Reptiles

What type of infection is Pseudomonas aeruginosa primarily known for causing?

Respiratory infections

Which bacterial genus is associated with causing sepsis in cattle and pneumonia in animals?

Pasteurella

What disease can Campylobacter jejuni cause?

Gastrointestinal disease (food poisoning)

Which bacterial order is known for its ability to break down various organic compounds including oil and plastic?

Pseudomonadales

What is a common symptom associated with Haemophilus influenzae infection in kids?

Earaches

Which bacterial genus is responsible for causing spontaneous abortions in domestic animals?

Pasteurella

What is a notable characteristic of Helicobacter species mentioned in the text?

Shape resembling a comma

Which bacterial class does the genus Campylobacter belong to?

"Epsilon"

Which bacterium is known for causing foodborne illness that can be particularly serious for pregnant women?

Listeria monocytogenes

Which bacterium is associated with causing mastitis in cattle?

Enterococcus faecalis

Which bacterial species is responsible for walking pneumonia?

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Which bacterium is known for being pleomorphic with no definitive shape and resembling fried egg colonies?

Mycoplasma hominis

Which bacterial group is commonly found in root canal treated teeth and associated with nosocomial infections like UTIs?

Enterococcus faecalis

'Group B S.agalactia' is associated with causing which of the following?

Neonatal infections

'Streptomyces griseus' is responsible for the production of which antibiotic?

Streptomycin

'Mycoplasma hominis' typically causes which type of infections?

Urogenital infections

Which bacterium is associated with nerve damage in extremities in diabetics with uncontrolled sugar levels?

Clostridium difficile

Which bacterium is zoonotic, causing animals to become infected by breathing in or eating spores from contaminated soil, plants, or water?

Bacillus anthracis

Which bacterium is known for being an insecticide that is deadly to caterpillars but does not affect humans?

Bacillus thuringiensis

Which bacterium is characterized by being a facultative anaerobe, producing enterotoxins, and causing issues with injury from stubbed toes?

Clostridium difficile

Which bacterium is associated with sour foods like pickles and yogurt, is acidophilic, and lacks spores?

Lactobacillus acidophilus

Which bacterium forms endospores, is commonly associated with nosocomial infections, and can be difficult to eradicate?

Clostridium difficile

"Grape-like clusters of GRAM + COCCI" describes which bacterium that tolerates high osmotic environments, is normal flora of skin and nasal passages, and can be antibiotic-resistant?

Staphylococcus aureus

"Toxins can cause diarrhea. Associated with cereal grains" refers to which bacterium?

Bacillus thuringiensis

Study Notes

Bacteria Classification and Characteristics

  • Pyogenes Aerotolerant: found on skin surface and in throat, produces hemolysins, toxins, and extracellular enzymes, causes parayngitis, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, necrotizing fascitis, strep, toxic shock syndrome, and bacteremia
  • S. agalactiae Facultative Anaerobe: found in digestive system and vagina, produces few if any virulent agents, causes mastitis in cattle, severe neonatal infections, UTI's, pneumonia, and endocarditis
  • Enterococcus: formerly group D strep, causes nosocomial infections like UTI's and wounds, found in root canal treated teeth
  • Listeria (L. monocytogenes): foodborne illness, very serious for pregnant women, causes spontaneous miscarriage, bacteria can survive refrigeration and freezing, avoid unpasteurized milk, raw dairy, soft cheese, hot dogs, deli meats
  • Mycoplasma: no cell wall, DNA related to Gram +, pleomorphic, sometimes filamentous, very small, look like fried egg colonies
    • M. pneumoniae: walking pneumonia, arthritis in goats
    • M. hominis: urogenital infections and causes complications of pregnancy

Actinobacteria

  • Obligate aerobes, facultative anaerobes: filamentous soil organisms, fresh dirt smell, capable of nitrogen fixation, common source of antibiotics
  • Streptomyces: produces antibiotics
    • S. aurofaciens: produces chlortetracycline
    • S. rimosis: produces tetracycline
    • S. griseus: produces streptomycin
    • S. erythraeus: produces erythromycin

Bacillus

  • Gram + rods, endospore forming, facultative anaerobes, non-motile
  • B. anthracis (anthrax): zoonose infection, animals become infected by breathing in or eating spores from contaminated soil, plants, or water, humans become infected through breathing in spores or getting spores in a cut or scrape
  • B. cereus: toxins can cause diarrhea, associated with cereal grains
  • B. thuringiensis (insecticide): doesn't affect humans, deadly to catepillars, good for tomato plants, toxin is a protein that we regularly extract the gene and put it in corn (GMO corn resistant to catepillars)

Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus

  • Lactobacillus: no spores, aerotolerant anaerobe, acidophils, sour foods like pickles/yogurt
    • L. acidophilus: probiotic
  • Staphylococcus: grape-like clusters of Gram + COCCI, tolerates high osmotic environments (salt and sugar), normal flora of skin and nasal passages
    • S. aureus (antibiotic-resistant MRSA): can be a source of food contamination – toxins in food, opportunistic in wounds, nosocomial infections

Test your knowledge on bacterial sources of infection and detection methods. Learn about the phenomena where phages infect bacteria, causing a clearing of growth due to cell lysis, and how Flow Cytometry can be used to identify bacteria in a sample without culturing them. Explore the use of this method in body fluids analysis.

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