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Anatomy Study

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The study of the structure of the body.

Anatomy

The study of dynamic process in the body; it determines how our body functions.

Physiology

The microscopic structure of tissues and organs. 2. The study of such structure.

Histology

The microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease.

histopathology

Deals with the study of the nature, causes, processes, and effects of diseases.

pathology

Focuses on the study of the development of embryos from the fertilization of the egg to the formation of a complete organism.

embryology

The study of cellular structure and function

cytology

Major components of a cell are as follows

Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Organelles Inclusion Cytosol

The ability of a cell to respond to stimuli, especially the ability of nerve and muscle cells to produce membrane voltage changes in response to stimuli, irritability.

excitability

The tendency of a living body to maintain relatively stable internal conditions in spite of changes in its external environment.

Stabilizes our body temperature, blood pressure, body weight, electrolyte balance, and pH.

homeostasis

is the study of unstable conditions that result our homeostatic controls fail.

pathophysiology

maintains homeostasis - counteracts changes and return it to a stable state.

negative feddback loop

sense changes like baroreceptors that monitor our BP.

receptor

cardiac center of the brain

It process information and makes a decision on what the appropriate response should be.

integrating control center

carries out the final corrective action.

effector

normal way of producing rapid change - beneficial outcomes - amplifies or reinforces the change to a system, driving it further away from its original state.

positive feedback loop

what is the order of simple to complex?

Molecule Organelle Tissue Organ Organ system Organism

At the highest level of organization

organism level

groups of organs that work together to perform complex physiological functions necessary for the survival of the organisms.

organ system

structures composed of two or more different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function.

organ level

are groups of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function.

tissue level

are the smallest structure and functional units of the human body. They vary in size, shape and function.

cellular level

four types of tissues

Epithelial Cognitive Muscle Nervous

An actual cut or slice to reveal internal anatomy

section

An imaginary flat surface passing through the body

plane

three major anatomical planes

sagittal frontal transverse

anatomical planes

sagittal = Any plane that extends from anterior to posterior and cephalic to caudal and that divides the body into right and left portions median = The sagittal plane that divides the body or an organ into equal right and left halves; parasagittal = Divide the body into unequal right and left portions. frontal = An anatomical plane that passes through the body or an organ from right to left and superior to inferior, such as a vertical plane that separates the anterior portion of the chest from the back; also called a coronal plane.

Passes across the body or an organ perpendicular to its long axis; therefore, it divides the body or organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.

transverse

the body is divided into two major regions

axial and appendicular

diaphragm = a muscular sheet; Separates the thoracic cavity above it from the abdominopelvic cavity below. thoracic cavity = Divided into the right, left and median portions by a partition called the mediastinum. mediastinum = The thick median partition of the thoracic cavity that separates one pleural cavity from the other and contains the heart, great blood vessels, esophagus, trachea, and thymus. pericardium = The heart is enveloped by two layers serous membrane

peritoneum = The lining of the abdominal cavity abdominal cavity = The body cavity between the diaphragm and pelvic brim pleura = A double-walled serous membrane that encloses each lung. pelvic cavity = The space enclosed by the true (lesser) pelvis, containing the urinary bladder, rectum, and internal reproductive organs.

parietal peritoneum = The outer layer, lining the abdominal wall. visceral peritoneum = Posterior midline of the abdominal wall, it turns inward and becomes another layer. serosa = At points where it enfolds and covers the outer surfaces of organs such as the stomach and small intestine. peritoneal cavity = The space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum

in the visceral peritoneum: A serous membrane that binds the intestines together and suspends them from the abdominal wall; the visceral continuation of the peritoneum) - it forms a membranous curtain suspending and anchoring the viscera.

mesentery

Organs: skin, hair, nails, cutaneous glands, mammary glands

Functions: protection, water retention, thermoregulation, vitamin D synthesis, cutaneous sensation, nonverbal communication.

integumentary

Organs: bones, cartilages, ligaments

Functions: support, movement, protective enclosure of viscera, blood formation, mineral storage, electrolyte and acid base balance.

skeletal

Organs: skeletal muscles

Functions: movement, stability, communication, control of body openings, heat production.

muscular

Organs: lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils

Functions: recovery of excess tissue fluid, detection of pathogens, production of immune cells, defense against disease.

lymphatic

Organs: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

Functions: absorption of oxygen, discharge of carbon dioxide, acid base balance, speech

respiratory

Organs: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, pancreas

Functions: elimination of wastes; Regulation of blood volume and pressure; stimulation of red blood cell formation; control of fluid, electrolyte and acid base balance; detoxification.

urinary

Organs: teeth, tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas.

Functions: nutrient breakdown and absorption. Liver functions include metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals; synthesis of plasma proteins; disposal of drugs, toxins, and hormones; and cleansing of blood.

digestive

Organs: testes, epididymides, spermatic ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis

Functions: production and delivery of sperm; secretion of sex hormones.

male reproductive

Organs: brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia

Functions: rapid internal communication, coordination, motor control, and sensation

nervous

Organs: pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, testes, ovaries

Functions: hormone production, internal chemical communication, coordination

endocrine

Organs: heart, blood vessels

Functions: distribution of nutrients, oxygen, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, heat, immune cells, and antibodies; fluid, electrolyte, and acid base balance.

circulatory

Systems of protection, support and movement = Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular Systems of internal communication and integration = Nervous system and Endocrine system Systems of fluid transport = Circulatory and Lymphatic Systems of intake and output = Respiratory, Urinary and Digestive

Ventral = toward the front or belly dorsal = toward the back or spine anterior = toward the ventral side posterior = toward the dorsal side

superior = above inferior = below medial = toward the midsagittal plane lateral = away from the midsaggital plane

proximal = closer to the point of attachment or origin distal = farther from the point of attachment or origin superficial = closer to the body surface deep = farther from the body surface

a dome-shaped muscle located beneath the lungs and separating the thoracic (chest) cavity from the abdominal cavity. It plays a crucial role in the process of breathing and respiratory function.

diaphragm

regions have cavities containing viscera, it contains brain, heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, and kidneys

axial

The _____ are lined by thin serous membranes - secretes lubricating fil of moisture

cavities

Three fibrous membranes between the central nervous system and surrounding bone: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. It protects the tissues from the hard protective bone that encloses it.

meninges

This cavity is located along the dorsal (back) surface of the body and is subdivided into two main regions: • Cranial Cavity: This cavity houses the brain and is formed by the bones of the skull. • Vertebral Cavity: This cavity contains the spinal cord and is formed by the vertebrae of the spinal column.

dorsal body

This cavity is located along the ventral (front) surface of the body and is larger than the dorsal cavity. It is further divided into two main regions by the diaphragm:

ventral body

Which statement is false regarding the anatomical position?

the head is turned to the left side

the nose is superior to the navel

True

another name for anterior?

ventral

the word anterior means

at or toward the front of the body

the wrist is distal to the elbow

True

another word for superior?

cranial

the skin is ____ to the skeletal bones.

superficial

the heart is _____ to the shoulder

medial

the elbow is _____ between the wrist and shoulder

intermediate

The radius (forearm bone) is ________ to the humerus (upper arm bone).

distal

The scapula (shoulder blade) is _________ to the vertebral column

Posterolateral

Right hypochondriac region = liver and gallbladder epigastric region = stomach liver and pancreas left hypochondriac region = spleen, part of stomach and L kidney right lumbar region = ascending colon of the large intestine and part of the lover

umbilical region = small intestine and transverse colon of the large intestine left lumbar region = descending colon of the large intestine and part of the left kidney right inguinal region = cecum and appendix hypogastric region = urinary bladder, part of the small intestine and uterus

  • initial part of the sigmoid colon
  • part of the small intestine

left inguinal region

a group of similar cells and cell products that arise from the same region of an embryo and work together to perform a specific structural or physiological role in an organ

tissue

extracellular that surrounds the cells, and the relative amount of space

matrix

the matrix is composed of a clear gel known as

ground substance or ECF

consists of many layers. This type of tissue does not readily allow rapid diffusion. Stratified epithelium resists abrasion and prevents entrance of pathogens.

stratified

allows rapid diffusion or transport. It is found in organs, such as the intestines and lungs, which require movement of solutes across an epithelial layer.

simple epithelium

consists of multiple layers of epithelial cells which would not allow rapid diffusion or transport.

transitional

epithelium has tall columnar cells in a single layer interspersed with shorter basal cells?

pseudostratified columnar

An epithelium consisting of one layer of cells in which every cell touches and rests on the basement membrane is called a(n) ____ epithelium.

simple

The columnar epithelial tissue in which all cells touch the basement membrane but not all cells reach the free surface is called a _____ columnar epithelium.

pseudostratified

What is the free surface of an epithelial cell referred to as?

Apical

Which epithelium has tall columnar cells in a single layer interspersed with shorter basal cells?

pseudostratified columnar

Air sacs of the lungs, Serous membranes of the viscera and Inner lining of heart and blood vessels are found in?

simple squamous epithelium

Which type of epithelium lines the stomach, intestines, gall bladder, uterus, and uterine tubes?

simple columnar

What type of epithelium is found in the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs, inner lining of blood vessels, and serous membranes of the viscera?

simple squamous

male reproductive tract, bronchi and nasal cavity can be found in?

pseudostratified columnar

Gall bladder, Uterus, Intestines, and Stomach can be found in?

simple columnar epithelium

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