Gr7 - NS Word Bank

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the divisions of the year into spring, summer, autumn and winter

seasons

an imaginary line around the Earth

equator

half of the Earth, divided by the Equator

hemisphere

incoming solar radiation (heat and light)

lnsolation

two dates, 22 December and 21 June, when the Sun reaches its highest point in the sky directly overhead one of the tropics, giving all places on Earth their longest or shortest day or night of the year depending on ' whether they are in the northern or southern hemisphere

solstice

two dates, 21 March and 22 September, when the Sun's t oys fall directly on the equator. All places on the earth experience equal night and day - 12 hours each

equinox:

a measurement of how for away a place is from the equator

latitude

spread out or scattered

dispersed

halfway between the equator: and the Poles

mid-latitude

a process whereby plants use the Sun's energy, carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil to produce energycontaining food

photosynthesis

a network of interactions among and bet ween organisms in their environment

ecosystem

dead plants and animals ore decomposed by organisms called decomposers

decomposers

a natural source of limited supply

non-renewable resources

an object in space that orbits a bigger object

natural satellite

a person who travels in space

astronaut

to circle; the curved course followed by a heavenly body

orbit

the large high tides, with lower low tides in beween, are produced twice each month when the Sun and Moon are in line so that their gravitational pull is combined

spring tides

the small-range tides that occur when the Sun's gravitational pull and the Moon's gravitational · pull are not reinforcing each other

neap tides

satellites designed by . space scientists and engineers for travel in space

space probe

when an object, which is moving around a central point, appears to be moved away from the centre by another force

centrifugal force

the point at which two objects, which started with different temperatures, .reach an equal temperature

thermal equilibrium

the transfer of heat energy between solid objects that are in direct physical contact with each other

conduction

a material that does not conduct heat well

insulator

the transfer of heat energy through the mov81Tlent of particles in liquids and gases

convection

a flow . of particles from one place to another

current

when a gas changes to a liquid as it cools

condenses

the transfer of heat energy by waves, without contact or movement of particles

radiation

heat energy that can be transferred by radiation

radiant heat

a process that does not need energy to make it happen

passive

using energy

actively

a method of passive heat · exchange based on natural convection currents

thermosiphon effect

a space in where there are no particles

vacuum

a material that absorbs heat from a heat source, and then releases it slowly

thermal mass

a machine that has blades, which are turned by a force like high · pressure steam

turbine

gases like carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour that trap heat in the atmosphere and reflect it back causing an increase In temperatures on the Earth

greenhouse gases

a type of sedimentary rock in which oil and natural gas can often be . found

shale

a process used to remove oil and natural gas from layers of rock by pumping water under pressure into it and then blasting the rock blasting the

fracking

the splitting of the nucleus of an atom

nuclear fission

electricity that is made using moving water to turn turbines

hydro-electricity

specialised panels that are adapted to absorb sunlight and convert it into electricity

photovoltaic cells

fuels that come from an organic source such as algae

biofuels

energy that is stored in a system

potential energy

energy which causes a change or movement

kinetic energy

the standard unit Of measurement Of energy

joule

organisms like plants that are able to convert energy from the Sun into chemical energy

producers

animals that eat plants and other animals

consumers

a law that states that energy in a system is never lost but simply converted to a different form

law of conservation of energy

a network of . different sources of energy that interact with one another

energy system

the passing of energy from one part of a system to another

energy transfer

when energy changes from one form to another, for example . . potential energy · to kinetic energy or vice versa

energy transformation

Test your knowledge on the divisions of the year into spring, summer, autumn, and winter, the two solstices, and the two equinoxes. Learn about the varying lengths of day and night experienced by different parts of the Earth during these phenomena.

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