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Combined Moorish and Gothic elements with naturalistic forms, their textured, undulating shapes recall waves, sea coral, and fish bones.

An approach to urban planning characterized by monumentally placed buildings, grand promenades, spacious plazas, and classical sculpture.

Used nature-inspired or “organic” decorations to humanize his imposing structure.

World’s largest steel suspension bridge.

School of Fine Arts established in 1819 by the French government. The school taught a way of organizing a building into a balanced hierarchy of spatial elements and planning principles.

“Form (ever) follows function.”

a comprehensive planning document for the development of the monumental core and the park system of Washington, D.C.

Industrial revolution, vast economic and social upheavals, stemming from mechanization and mass production, required new building types for industry, commerce, and transportation

Symmetrical plans and eclectic use of architectural features. Often gives a massive, elaborate, and ostentatious effect.

Considered as the first skyscraper.

A visionary plan meant to bring urban life to the country; a low-density settlement with small establishments and an acre of land for each family

The invention of elevator and more sophisticated heating, plumbing, and electric lighting systems made the higher spaces as accessible and comfortable as the lower ones.

Based on geometric motifs, streamlined and curvilinear forms, sharply defined outlines. Uses bold colors and synthetic materials (plastics).

Believed that buildings should be spread out horizontally. And a promoter of organic architecture.

His greatest contribution to the skyscraper was the organizing of its identical, stacked floors to express a strong visual identity. (Three levels: base, shaft, and top floor)

based on the return to craftsmanship and the integration of art, design, and architecture.

Also called Style Moderne.

Art Nouveau in Germany

Art Nouveau in Italy

Characterized by fluid, undulating motifs, often derived from natural forms.

Art Nouveau in France

Art Nouveau in Spain

Art Nouveau in Australia

“The Style”; use of black and white with the primary colors rectangular forms, and asymmetry (inspired by a Mondrian painting).

A European movement that generated jagged and dynamic forms in both painting and architecture

Shapes are often of irregular contours and resemble forms found in nature.

A building should be functional, harmonizes with its natural environment, and forms an integrated whole.

Expression of construction was to be the basis for all building design; emphasizes on functional machine parts.

Functional architecture devoid of regional characteristics. Simple geometric forms, large untextured surfaces (often white), large areas of glass, and general use of steel or reinforced concrete construction.

A school in Germany founded by Walter Gropius Synthesis of technology, craft, and design aesthetics Emphasis on functional design (“form follows function”).

Le Corbusier real name

The Five Points of Architecture

More complex, sculptural shapes in concrete.

An apartment block with 23 different unit types

Reflected the architect’s five points of architecture

A visionary scheme of highly ordered groupings of skyscrapers

“Less is more.”

“Nature, not the machine, should serve as the model for architecture.”

“The house is a machine for living in.”

Best known for developing boxy, steel-and-glass architecture for nearly every purpose - from houses to skyscrapers.

Finnish architect; one of the first modernists to fuse technology with craft. Humanized modernism with curved walls and roofs and wood-finished interiors. He was also sensitive to the contours of the land and to a building’s orientation to daylight.

Used advances in structural systems to create sculpturally expressive buildings.

A renewed appreciation for the rich traditions of architecture past.

Exemplifies his mastery of natural illumination.

“Architectural form should reflect a building’s social purpose.”

Architects began enlivening facades with color, pattern, and ornaments.

His buildings followed a unique design direction according to the particulars of their site and purpose.

“Less is a bore.”

His work is often compared to ancient monuments. Composed of circles, squares, and triangles, his designs were constructed of rough concrete and brick to convey a massive primal quality.

Divided clustered towers into “served” and “servant” spaces, an architectural principle that is still followed today

International Style

Once an advocate of the International Style, became one of postmodernism’s biggest promoters.

Incorporated decorative, historical references within his abstract designs. His architecture often has a childlike, cartoonish quality, shown to exaggerated effect.

Proponent of New Brutalism and high-tech. He sculpted his buildings to convey solidity.

Functional architecture devoid of regional characteristics

A cultural acropolis of six building situated high above a Los Angeles freeway.

The tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere.

Using bent, angled and exploded forms to represent the uncertainty of our times.

“there is no fixed truth but only multiple interpretations.”

Mechanical ducts are kept hidden; prefers a slick, clean skin of metal and glass that is articulated by structure.

Architects of Centre Pompidou

Spans 80,000 sq.m.; largest fabric-covered structure in the world.

Used to describe massive modern architecture built of reinforced concrete, with the concrete’s rough, abrasive surfaces left exposed.

Inspired by the _________ (raw concrete) used by Le Corbusier in his later buildings.

Using the technology of building in a highly expressive way.

The innards of the building are placed on the exterior.

Neoclassic style with native American materials


Test your knowledge of architectural styles, urban planning concepts, and iconic structures with this quiz. Explore the fusion of Moorish and Gothic elements, the principles of organic decorations, and the influence of the School of Fine Arts on architectural design.

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