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By ComfortingAquamarine

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Flashcards

110 Questions

Information Ethics may be described as the study of the moral issues arising from “the triple

What does IE stand for in the context of computer ethics?

The term “ecopoiesis” refers to

what is a morally qualifiable action?

what sort of moral agents inhabit the infosphere?

transition system is:

Which one of the stages does IE have?

information ethics was used as a general label to discuss issues regarding information (or data) confidentiality, reliability, quality, and usage.

information-intensive services are business and property services, communications, finance, and insurance

consideration of artificial agents as moral agents IE does not refer to the moral value of meaningful data such as an e-mail.

Justice requires “the liberty of each human being to develop in his freedom the full measure of the human possibilities embodied in him.”:

Justice requires “the equality by which what is just for A and B remains just when the positions of A and B are interchanged.”:

Justice requires “a good will between man and man that knows no limits short of those of humanity itself.”:

Enables human beings to do an enormous number of new things that they never were able to do before:

Many people found Moor's account of computer ethics to be _________ way to understand and deal with emerging computer ethics issues:

His account of the nature of computer ethics quickly became the most influential one among a growing number of scholars across America who were joining the computer ethics research community

Moor provided a very effective problem-solving method:

"Fundamental Principles" of information ethics offered by Floridi.

Since everything that exists, according to Floridi's theory, is an informational object or process, he calls the totality of all that exists:

A typical problem in computer ethics arise because there is a _____________ about how computer technology shoulde be used.

After a focus on normative ethical theory and its application and justification, emphasis is now placed by some authors on the ................. of institutions, infrastructure, and technology, as shaping factors in our lives and in society.

Until now ................ (was/were) treated in moral philosophy as a mere supplier of thought experiments and counter-examples to arguments and theories.

This/These developments in ethics come in the idea of Value Sensitive Design (VSD).

Was first proposed in connection with information and communication technology, and that is still its main area of application.

Focuses on existing moral controversies and practices and on use, although it should also explore uncharted terrain and focus on the technology and its design.

Ethics was in the beginning of the twentieth century predominantly a .............

Ethics has seen notable changes in the course of the past 100 years

The simplest way to be a generalist is to think that there are fairly accurate general moral rules or principles that may be captured and codified, for example, in codes of conduct, which can be applied to particular cases.

Jonathan Dancy defines particularism in Ethics Without Principles as follows: “The possibility of moral thought and judgment depend on the provision of a suitable supply of moral principles.”

onathan Dancy defines particularism in Ethics Without Principles as follows: “The possibility of moral thought and judgment does not depend on the provision of a suitable supply of moral principles.”

Computer ethicists should probe beyond the technicalstatus quo and ask how the problem came into being, and what are the designs and architectural decisions that have led up to it.

………………. refer to parties (individuals or organizations) who interact directly with the computer system or its output.

……………… refer to all other parties who are affected by the use of the system

Focus on the design and performance of the technology itself:

Focus on the individuals, groups, or larger social systems that configure, use, or are otherwise affected by the technology:

theoretically grounded approach to the design of technology that accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process:

Heuristics for Interviewing Stakeholders:

When systematically determining the benefits and harms for each group of stakeholders, attention must be paid to:

Empirical investigations are not need to evaluate the success of a particular design.

Empirical investigations need to evaluate the success of a particular design.

conceptual investigation entails a philosophically informed analysis of the central value constructs.

Technical investigations provides a critical protection for privacy, and supports other human values such as autonomy and trust

Informed consent provides a critical protection for privacy, and supports other human values such as autonomy and trust

. …………………. `s ground intellectual property rights in social progress and incentives to innovate.

…………………… is generally characterized as nonphysical property that is the product of cognitive processes and whose value is based up on some idea or collection of ideas

……………. protection extends to original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression.

…………… yield the strongest form of protection, in that a 20 years exclusive monopoly is granted over any expression or implementation of the protected work.

A …………………. may consist of any formula, pattern, device, or compilation of information that is used in one's business

The two major restrictions on the domain of trade secrets are:

…………………… defenders maintain that intellectual property is an extension of individual personality.

Intellectual property falls under the umbrella of tangible property.

Intellectual property falls under the umbrella of intangible property

One alternative to granting patent rights to inventors as incentive is government support of intellectual labor.

personality-based theories of intellectual property aren’t appeal to other moral considerations.

personality-based theories of intellectual property often appeal to other moral considerations

…………………. one has informational privacy when she is able to limit or restrict others from access to information about herself.

One's having privacy is directly linked to one's having control over information about oneself.

Distinguishes between the concept of privacy, which it defines in terms of restricted access, and the management of privacy.

The way individuals can easily become associated with and linked to newly created groups that are made possible by technologies such as KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Databases).

…………………………… are relatively recent expressions used to refer to a conception of privacy.

…………… concerns affected by the amount of personal data collected

privacy protects the interest individuals have in sustaining a personal space, free from interference by other people and organizations.

privacy is conceived of as a “utility” in that it can help to preserve human dignity

. Individual privacy is much more difficult to achieve in highly technological societies.

Informational privacy concerns can affect many aspects of an individual's life from commerce to healthcare to work to recreation

Informational privacy concerns cannot affect many aspects of an individual's life from commerce to healthcare to work to recreation

. ………. are choices between good and bad.

………. is fundamental laws that govern human behavior; i.e. Golden Rule.

………. is something a group holds to be valuable or worthwhile

Copyrights protect published works such as books, articles, software, etc.

Universality is reasons for action that all people in society could accept.

Transitivity is reasons for action that all people in society could accept.

Utilitarian Ethics is the decision that produces the highest good for all people involved.

. ………. is a legal protection for a design or invention.

………. is something that one owes; an obligation; debt.

………. is any wrongful act that does not involve a breach of contract and for which civil suit can be brought.

.………. not following reasonable rules and standards that apply and committed a wrongful act

In consequentialism ethical theory, human actions are judged good or bad, right or wrong, depending on the results of such actions.

Act utilitarianism tells one to obey those rules that bring the maximum happiness to the greatest number of people.

Rule utilitarianism tells one to obey those rules that bring the maximum happiness to the greatest number of people.

This theory considers human beings as endowed with all faculties and capabilities to live in happiness.

………. states how people ought to behave as they pursue their own interests.

It claims that pleasure is the only good thing in human life.

………. maintains that ethical statements are neither true nor false and cannot be proven; they are really only statement about how someone feels

Asymmetric encryption commonly known as ……….

Act in accordance with your duties, following the appropriate rules.

This theory is negatively formulated, denying the existence of universal moral norms.

………. prevents unauthorized withholding of information from those who need it when they need it.

A loss of privacy online and risk of hacking creates more deceit

A loss of privacy online and risk of hacking creates more deceit

………. causes more energy consumption and pollution

Bad Effects of New Technology on Society are

A loss of privacy online and risk of hacking creates more ……….

It is much easier to be a bully while hidden away ………

………. is set of moral principles that regulate the use of computers.

This may be one of the biggest drawbacks of device-filled world.

Technology addiction is becoming more ……….

………. is a process of exploration and analysis of large quantities of data by automatic or semi-automatic means.

Principles of right and wrong.

Privacy and Freedom in the Internet Age.

What are some potential motives for targeting a computer system while committing an offense, such as gaining entry to a computer system in order to cause damage to the computer or the data it contains?

A grant to the creator of an invention granting the owner an exclusive monopoly on the ideas behind an invention for between 17 and 20 years.

The Computer Ethics Institute developed these guidelines for ethical computer use that prohibit all the following behaviors EXCEPT

What is the illegal action through using a computer?

………. is an organized attempt by a country's military to disrupt or destroy the information and communications systems of another country.

Three main ways that intellectual property is protected:

Spyware is a Software downloaded onto a user’s computer - usually without the user’s knowledge - that tracks Web behaviour and reports that behaviour to a third-party server

. Spyware is a Software downloaded onto a user’s computer - usually with the user’s knowledge - that tracks Web behaviour and reports that behaviour to a third-party server

Organizations can easily maintain detailed databases on individuals.

Organizations can not easily maintain detailed databases on individuals

Description

Test your knowledge of information ethics with this quiz on Chapter 1: Foundations of Information Ethics. Questions cover topics such as the moral issues related to availability, accessibility, and accuracy of information, as well as the acronyms and concepts in computer ethics.

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