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The Lymphatic and Immune System Chapter 21: Anatomy Overview

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36 Questions

What is the function of lymphocytes in the immune system?

Produce plasma cells

How does lymph move in the body?

By muscle contraction

Which area of the body has no lymph vessels according to the text?

CNS

What is the major staging area for the development of a critical immune response?

Lymph node

Which immune system component coordinates the adaptive immunity response?

B cells

What do larger lymphatic vessels have that helps keep lymph moving towards the heart?

Valves

What is the function of lymph nodes?

Remove debris and pathogens from lymph

What is the main function of the spleen?

Filter blood

What is the characteristic feature of lymphoid nodules?

Dense cluster of lymphocytes without a fibrous capsule

Which organ is important in developing immunity to oral pathogens?

Tonsils

What do afferent lymphatic vessels do in relation to lymph nodes?

Enter the lymph node

Why is swelling of tonsils observed during an infection?

Active immune response to infection

Which immune response is rapid, nonspecific, and not always effective?

Innate immune response

What is the function of natural killer cells in the immune system?

Induce apoptosis in infected cells

What is the primary role of macrophages in the immune system?

Phagocytosis and defense

Which cells are attracted to an injured area by leukotrienes during the inflammatory response?

Neutrophils

What is the function of Interferons in the immune system?

Induce nearby cells to produce antiviral proteins

Which type of antigen binds to receptors on T cells for antigen recognition?

Protein antigen

In which type of inflammation does the body respond to persistent pathogens and autoimmune diseases?

Chronic inflammation

Which molecules cause vasodilation and capillary permeability during the inflammatory response?

Histamine

Which signaling molecules allow two nearby cells to communicate?

Cytokines

What is the primary role of plasma cells?

Secrete soluble antibodies

What is the main function of Natural Killer cells?

Contain cell-killing granules and provide an innate immune response against viruses and some cancers

Which of the following is not considered a secondary lymphoid organ?

Thymus

What is the main function of the thymus gland?

Maturation of T cells

What is the main difference between the red and yellow bone marrow?

Red bone marrow is the site of hematopoiesis (blood cell production), while yellow bone marrow is primarily composed of fat cells for energy storage

Which type of immune cell is responsible for presenting antigens to T cells?

Dendritic cell

What is the purpose of negative selection during T cell development?

To eliminate T cells that might attack the body's own cells

What is the main function of helper T cells?

To secrete cytokines that enhance other immune responses

Which class of antibody is the first to be produced during a primary immune response?

IgM

What is the main function of IgA antibodies?

To protect mucosal surfaces from infection

What is the primary difference between active and passive immunity?

Active immunity involves the production of memory cells, while passive immunity does not.

How do cytotoxic T cells typically kill their target cells?

By inducing apoptosis in the target cell

What is the primary function of IgE antibodies?

To trigger the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells and basophils

What is the primary mechanism by which the immune system fights fungal infections?

Phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils

What is the primary mechanism by which the immune system fights viral infections?

Killing by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells

Explore the anatomy of the lymphatic and immune systems in Chapter 21, focusing on immune system cells, lymphatic system functions, lymph composition, fat absorption process, and the role of lymph nodes in immune response.

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