T-cell Development and Tolerance

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36 Questions

Where do T-cells primarily mature?

Thymus

Which cells in the thymus play a crucial role in guiding T-cell development?

Thymic epithelial cells

What process allows T-cells to recognize antigens presented via HLA?

Positive selection

What happens to T-cells with TCRs that bind self-antigens with high affinity?

Undergo negative selection

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the thymus?

Surrounded by a thick capsule

In T-cell development, where do lymphoid progenitors divide under the influence of IL-7?

Bone marrow

What is the main characteristic that differentiates T-cell development from B-cell development in terms of maturation location?

Maturation in thymus

Where are double negative 3 (DN3) cells mostly found during T-cell development in the thymus?

In the cortex

What happens if a developing T-cell in the thymus has a useless beta chain of the TCR?

The cell dies

What is the phenotype of a developing T-cell immediately after both TCR chains have been recombined?

Double positive (DP)

What happens if a DP (double positive) cell in the thymus interacts with thymic epithelial cells expressing self-antigens with very low affinity?

Death of the DP cell

What is the consequence when DP cells interact with thymic epithelial cells expressing self-antigens with high affinity?

Death of the DP cell

What is the fate of DN cells that do not rearrange their beta chain correctly in the thymus?

Death of the DN cell

What happens to a DP T-cell with 'low-medium' affinity for a thymic epithelial cell's HLA bound to self antigen during positive selection?

It is allowed to survive

What happens to a DP T-cell with 'high' affinity for a thymic epithelial cell's HLA bound to self antigen during negative selection?

It is killed

What happens to some T-cells that recognize self during negative selection?

They become regulatory T-cells

What determines whether a DP cell expresses CD4 or CD8 co-receptor after surviving positive and negative selection?

Interaction with medullary TECs

During positive selection, what leads to a DP T-cell being allowed to survive?

'Low-medium' affinity for thymic epithelial cell's HLA bound to self antigen

What provides the driving force for lymph to enter lymph capillaries?

All of the above

Which duct drains the right arm, thoracic region, and right head/neck into the blood system?

Right lymphatic duct

What happens to external pressure when lymph enters lymph capillaries?

It dissipates

What is the role of trunks in the lymphatic system?

Combine vessels after exiting lymph nodes

During T-cell development, beta chain of the TCR is shuffled before the alpha chain

True

95% of T-cells do not survive positive and negative selection

True

Choice of CD8 or CD4 receptors occurs in the cortex of the thymus

False

Where does central tolerance occur?

Thymus

What are the consequences of defects in AIRE gene?

Autoimmune diseases

Which of the following is the major polarizing cytokine for T-reg cells?

TGF-B

What happens when CD28 of Th cell binds to B7 (CD80/86) of CD4+ T-reg cells?

Apoptosis of T-reg cell

CTLA-4 is expressed on Th cells. Which ligand of the T-reg cell does it bind to with high affinity?

B7 (CD80/86)

Which of the following receptors is expressed on T-reg cells in high levels?

IL-2R

Which of the following antibodies plays a role in maintaining barrier integrity against microbial invasion?

IgA

Which of the following diseases is associated with deficiencies in both the IL-2R-alpha gene and the CTLA-4 gene?

Type 1 DM (diabetes mellitus)

Which of the following is true regarding the spleen?

All of the above

Which of the following signals do B-cells need to be activated without the help of Th cells?

All of the above

Where does the thoracic duct drain into?

Left subclavian vein and left internal jugular

Learn about the mechanisms of positive and negative selection in T-cell development. Understand how T-cells with varying affinities for self antigens survive or are eliminated in the thymus.

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