Justice as Fairness: Introductory Chapter

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What is the primary subject of justice according to the text?

The basic structure of society

What does the author aim to develop in the theory of justice?

A viable alternative to dominant philosophical doctrines

What concept does justice as fairness generalize and carry to a higher level of abstraction?

Social contract

Which virtue is compared to justice as the first virtue of social institutions?

Truth

What is replaced by an initial situation in the theory of justice as fairness?

The compact of society

What does the author take up for purposes of clarification and contrast?

Classical utilitarian and intuitionist conceptions

What is the author's view on the rejection of laws and institutions?

They should be reformed if they are unjust

According to the author, what is the foundation of each person's inviolability?

Justice

In a just society, how are the liberties of equal citizenship taken?

As settled

What permits the acquiescence in an erroneous theory according to the author?

Lack of a better theory

According to the author, when is an injustice tolerable?

Only when it is necessary to avoid an even greater injustice

What does the author consider as the first virtues of human activities?

Truth and justice

What is necessary to work out, according to the author?

A theory of justice

How does the author describe a society in relation to rules of conduct?

A self-sufficient association recognizing binding rules of conduct

What term do some theorists try to substitute for 'the ethics of care'?

The ethic of love

What is the advantage of the concept of care according to the text?

It emphasizes the work involved in caring for people

How has the ethics of care been developed as a moral theory?

Relevance to various aspects including law, politics, and international relations

How is the ethics of care sometimes viewed in relation to dominant moral theories?

As a replacement for them

What does the concept of care encompass according to the text?

Both values and practice

In what way has the term 'the ethics of care' evolved according to the text?

Expanded its focus on individual relationships only

What is the central focus of the ethics of care?

Attending to and meeting the needs of particular others

What does the ethics of care recognize about human beings?

They are dependent for many years of their lives

How does the ethics of care view human dependence?

As a moral value that is largely overlooked

What issue does the ethics of care think needs to be addressed?

Reconciling caring for particular others with the claims of universal justice

How is the approach of the ethics of care described by some advocates?

As a mosaic of insights and value sensitive to contextual nuance

What do advocates of the ethics of care emphasize about caring for particular others?

It should be reconciled with universal justice

What does the ethics of care refuse to do in relation to care and morality?

To relegate care to a realm outside morality

What is the pressing moral claim recognized by the ethics of care?

'The compelling moral salience' of attending to and meeting the needs of particular others

'How caring for particular others should be reconciled with universal justice' is an issue that needs to be addressed according to:

The ethics of care, as presented in the text

What do some advocates resist doing with regards to the approach of ethics of care?

Resisting generalizing this approach into something that can be fitted into the form of a moral theory.

Study Notes

  • The text introduces the theory of justice as fairness, a theory that generalizes the social contract notion.
  • Justice is considered the first virtue of social institutions, with individuals possessing an inviolability founded on justice.
  • In a just society, liberties of equal citizenship are taken as settled, and rights secured by justice are not subject to political bargaining or calculus of social interests.
  • Justice is necessary to choose among various social arrangements that determine the division of advantages and underwrite an individual agreement on distributive shares.
  • The ethics of care is discussed as a moral theory relevant to various spheres of life beyond family and friendship.
  • The central focus of the ethics of care is on attending to and meeting the needs of particular others for whom we take responsibility.
  • Human beings are dependent for many years of their lives, and the moral claim of those dependent on us for care is pressing.
  • Prospects for human progress and flourishing hinge on the care that those needing it receive.
  • Moralities built on the image of the independent, autonomous, rational individual often overlook the reality of human dependence and the morality it calls for.
  • The ethics of care attends to the moral claims of particular others and refuses to relegate care to a realm outside morality.
  • An issue that needs to be addressed is how caring for particular others can be reconciled with universal justice claims.

Explore the main ideas and concepts presented in the introductory chapter of 'Justice as Fairness'. The chapter provides an informal overview of the theory of justice and its role in social cooperation, setting the stage for detailed arguments to follow.

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