Bone and cartilage histo

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What is the function of articular cartilage?

Absorbs shock and reduces friction at joints

Which zone of articular cartilage contains chondrocytes in parallel columns?

Zone 3: Radial

What type of growth occurs in hyaline and elastic cartilages?

Both appositional and interstitial growth

Why does articular and fibrocartilage lack appositional growth?

Lack of perichondrium

Which layer of cartilage stains darker than the matrix of other layers?

Calcified layer

What is a specific property of perichondrium that affects the growth of cartilage?

Provides a boundary for nutrient diffusion

What is the main function of articular cartilage?

Transform articulating bone ends into lubricated, wear-proof surfaces

Why do only hyaline and elastic cartilages have a perichondrium?

To provide a source of new cartilage cells

Which layer of the perichondrium contains blood, nerve supply, and lymphatics?

Outer fibrous layer

In which zone of articular cartilage are chondrocytes rather small and flattened parallel to the surface?

Zone 1 - Tangential orientation

What is the characteristic structure of hyaline cartilage that makes it highly hydrated?

Proteoglycans

What is the main function of articular cartilage?

Support and protect joints

Which zone of articular cartilage is closest to the joint surface and contains flattened chondrocytes?

Surface zone

What type of fibers are found in all cartilages, including elastic cartilage?

Collagen fibers

What is the main function of the perichondrium in cartilage tissue?

Growth regulation

In which layer of articular cartilage are chondrocytes arranged in columns perpendicular to the surface?

Calcified zone

What distinguishes fibrocartilage from hyaline cartilage in terms of structure?

Rich in type I collagen

Which zone of articular cartilage is characterized by large chondrocytes and high proteoglycan content?

Proliferative zone

What is the main function of osteoclasts?

Bone resorption

Which hormone suppresses bone resorption by osteoclasts?

Calcitonin

Where in the bone do osteocytes occupy shallow depressions known as lacunae?

Periosteum

Which cells release osteoclast stimulating factor in response to Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)?

Osteoblasts

How does Calcitonin affect calcium levels in the blood?

Supresses bone resorption by osteoclasts

Which cells have receptors for various hormones including calcitonin?

Osteoclasts

What type of cells are capable of forming bone during bone repair and growth?

Endosteal cells

Which type of bone tissue contains osteons with a parallel arrangement of collagen fibers?

Compact bone

What is the specialized connective tissue composed of a monolayer of osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and endosteal cells?

Endosteum

Which structure within the compact bone is best seen in the diaphysis of long bones?

Osteons (Haversian system)

Which component of bone is sensitive to tearing or tension due to its sensory innervation by pain nerves?

Periosteum

Which system supplies blood to the outer 1/3 of the cortex in long bones?

Periosteal system

What is the primary function of osteoclasts in bone tissue?

Break down bone tissue by resorption

Which hormone is primarily involved in increasing blood calcium levels by targeting bones?

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

What is the main function of osteoblasts in bone tissue?

Initiate the process of bone formation

Which of the following accurately describes the histological structure of the periosteum?

Composed of dense irregular connective tissue with an outer fibrous layer and an inner osteogenic layer

What is the function of compact (cortical) bone in the skeletal system?

Provides strength and support for weight-bearing activities

How does calcitonin affect blood calcium levels in the body?

Inhibits osteoclasts to reduce calcium release from bones

What is the main function of osteoclasts in bone tissue?

Break down bone matrix

How does calcitonin affect blood calcium levels in the body?

Decreases blood calcium levels

What is the primary function of osteoblasts in bone tissue?

Produce new bone matrix

Which hormone primarily increases blood calcium levels by targeting bones?

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

What distinguishes fibrocartilage from hyaline cartilage in terms of structure?

Presence of elastic fibers

Which type of bone tissue contains osteons with a parallel arrangement of collagen fibers?

Compact (Cortical) Bone

What is the main function of osteoclasts?

Resorb bone tissue

Which hormone suppresses bone resorption by osteoclasts to decrease blood calcium levels?

Calcitonin

Where do osteoclasts originate from?

Bone marrow

What is the function of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) in calcium regulation?

Increase blood calcium levels

Which cells have receptors for various hormones including calcitonin?

Osteoclasts

Which type of bone formation occurs during growth or repair and is characterized by an irregular arrangement of collagen fibers?

Primary (immature, woven) bone

What is the main function of osteoclasts in bone tissue?

Stimulate calcium release from bones

Which hormone suppresses bone resorption by osteoclasts?

Calcitonin

Where do large irregular, short, and flat bones primarily receive their blood supply from?

Periosteal system

What do osteoblasts do in bone tissue?

Build new bone matrix

Which component of bone is sensitive to tearing or tension due to its sensory innervation by pain nerves?

Periosteum

Which of the following is NOT a component produced by chondrocytes in cartilage?

Hyaluronic acid

What is the purpose of Masson's Trichrome stain in histological staining of cartilage?

Highlight collagen fibers

What is the primary function of cartilage in growth and development, especially in children?

Allowing bones to expand without breaking apart

Which histological staining technique is specifically used to highlight areas with heavily sulfated mucopolysaccharides in hyaline cartilage?

Alcian Blue and PAS stains

What plays a crucial role in providing stability to skeletal structures like rib cages and vertebrae?

Collagen fibers

Where is hyaline cartilage commonly found in the human body?

In the nose

What is the main difference between fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage has less collagen content

Which type of cartilage is characterized by having a rubbery texture and can be found in the external ear?

Elastic cartilage

What makes up the primary components of the extracellular matrix of cartilage?

Water, proteoglycans, and collagen fibers

What are chondrocytes responsible for in cartilage tissue?

Maintaining the overall shape of the tissue

What staining techniques are commonly used to study cartilage histology?

Hematoxylin and eosin staining

What is the primary function of osteocytes in bone tissue?

Regulating calcium ion exchange and sensing mechanical forces

What is a key responsibility of osteoblasts in bone formation?

Synthesizing and secreting organic components like collagen fibrils

Which process is primarily carried out by osteoclasts in bone tissue?

Breaking down and resorbing bone tissue

What type of cells originate from osteoblasts and communicate with each other through canaliculi?

Osteocytes

Which cell type plays a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by sensing mechanical forces?

Osteocytes

What significant contribution do osteoblasts make to bone growth and repair processes?

Initiating bone formation during growth and repair processes

What is the primary function of osteoclasts in bone tissue?

Secreting enzymes that dissolve the mineralized matrix

What cell type differentiates into osteoblasts during bone remodeling?

Osteoprogenitor cells

What is the main protein component of bone matrix?

Type I collagen

What mineral constituent contributes to the rigidity of bone?

Calcium phosphate

What cell type eventually becomes trapped within the calcified extracellular matrix during bone remodeling?

Osteocytes

Which process ensures an appropriate balance between bone formation and resorption?

Bone modeling

Highison Block 4 week 1

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