Genetics Glossary - VGL Vocab Quiz

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What is an allele?

An alternate version of a gene

What are amino acids?

The building blocks of proteins

What is the blood-brain barrier?

A protective barrier in the brain

What does 'autosomal' refer to?

Non-sex chromosomes

What is a carrier in genetics?

An organism possessing one copy of a recessive allele

What are caused by differences in the sequence of the DNA at a specific position within a gene?

Alleles

Which of the following best describes chimerism?

The presence of at least two different complete diploid sets of DNA that originated from more than one zygote

What is the function of a codon in DNA or RNA?

It specifies the synthesis of a single amino acid during the translation of mRNA to protein

What is the difference between co-dominance and incomplete dominance?

Co-dominance results in the expression of both alleles equally, while incomplete dominance results in the blending of phenotypes

What are de novo variants?

Genetic variations that arise in a reproductive cell or the fertilized egg, and are absent from both parents’ DNA

What is the definition of dilution in the context of coat color mutations?

A variant of a pigmentation gene that lightens the coat color of an animal

What does complete penetrance refer to?

Traits with complete penetrance will be expressed in all individuals possessing the causal allele

What is a compound heterozygote?

An organism with two different mutant alleles at the same genetic locus, one on each chromosome

What is a deletion mutation?

A type of mutation in which part of the DNA sequence is lost

What is chimerism caused by in animals?

Two fertilized eggs fusing early during gestation or twins exchanging cells

Test your knowledge of genetics vocabulary with this quiz. Learn the definitions of key terms such as allele, amino acid, and autosomal.

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