COPY: Cytokines Chapter 3
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COPY: Cytokines Chapter 3

Understand the functions of cytokines, including their binding to receptors, altering gene expression, and three primary functions. Learn about autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine interactions, and their role in T-cell activation and inflammation.

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Questions and Answers

What is the primary function of IL-2 in terms of cytokine-receptor interactions?

T-cell activation

What is a characteristic of cytokines in terms of their production?

They require a stimulus for production

Which type of cytokine binding results in the activation of cells in the immediate vicinity?

Paracrine binding

Which of the following cytokine families includes IL-2 and IL-4?

<p>Hematopoietin family</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary source of cytokines?

<p>TH cells and macrophages</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a function of cytokines secreted by TH cells?

<p>Activation of B cells, CTLs, MΦ, and NK cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary characteristic of acute phase of inflammation?

<p>Accumulation of fluid and leukocytes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of cytokine promotes systemic inflammation?

<p>Proinflammatory cytokine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of anti-inflammatory cytokines?

<p>To reduce inflammation and promote healing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of cytokines in host responses?

<p>To regulate host responses to infection, immune responses, inflammation, and trauma</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on disease?

<p>They make disease worse</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary difference between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines?

<p>Proinflammatory cytokines promote inflammation, while anti-inflammatory cytokines reduce it</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common feature among the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, and IL-7?

<p>They share a common γ chain</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of immunity is activated by Th1 cells?

<p>Cell-mediated immunity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the consequence of cytokine binding to its receptor?

<p>Aggregation of the receptors at the cell surface</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following cytokines is not typically produced by Th2 cells?

<p>IL-2</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary target of the cytokine IL-7?

<p>Stem cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of cytokine is IL-10?

<p>Th2 cytokine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of JAKs in cytokine signaling?

<p>To phosphorylate STATs and themselves</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the effect of bacterial cell wall endotoxins on macrophages?

<p>They stimulate macrophages to produce IL-1 and TNF-α.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of Th2 cells in immune responses?

<p>Activate B cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cytokine is a chemokine that primarily targets neutrophils and endothelial cells?

<p>IL-8</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the consequence of a defective γ chain in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)?

<p>Impaired cytokine signaling</p> Signup and view all the answers

What type of bacteria can cause bacterial septic shock?

<p>Gram-negative bacteria.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of phosphorylation of STATs by JAKs?

<p>Dimerized STATs translocate to the nucleus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common symptom of bacterial septic shock?

<p>A drop in blood pressure.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary mechanism by which bacterial septic shock develops?

<p>Bacterial cell wall endotoxins stimulate macrophages to overproduce IL-1 and TNF-α.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the roles of cytokines in immune responses?

<p>To initiate inflammation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating bacterial septic shock?

<p>Using antagonists to block the effects of IL-1 and TNF-α.</p> Signup and view all the answers

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