Cytokines in the Immune System
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Cytokines in the Immune System

Learn about the different types of cytokines, their functions, and roles in the immune response. From interferons to growth factors, understand how cytokines interact with immune cells and coordinate an immune response.

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Questions and Answers

O fator de crescimento epidérmico (EGF) é um exemplo de fator de crescimento que está envolvido na proliferação e diferenciação de células imunes.

True

A interleucina 3 (IL-3) é uma citocina que interfere na replicação viral.

False

O TNF-beta é um exemplo de fator de necrose tumoral (TNF).

True

A quimiocina CCL2 é um exemplo de interleucina.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

O G-CSF é um exemplo de fator de crescimento.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

A IL-10 é um exemplo de fator de necrose tumoral (TNF).

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

Quais citocinas promovem a inflamação e recrutam células imunes para o local da infecção?

<p>Citocinas pró-inflamatórias (e.g. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Que célula imune é ativada pela citocina para promover a apresentação de antígenos?

<p>Célula dendrítica</p> Signup and view all the answers

Qual é o papel das citocinas na coordenação da resposta imune?

<p>Todas as opções acima</p> Signup and view all the answers

Que consequência pode ocorrer em caso de desequilíbrio na produção de citocinas?

<p>Desenvolvimento de doenças autoimunes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Quais células imunes produzem citocinas em resposta à presença de patógenos?

<p>T células e macrófagos</p> Signup and view all the answers

Qual é o papel das citocinas pró-inflamatórias na resposta imune?

<p>Promover a inflamação e recrutar células imunes para o local da infecção</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Cytokines

Cytokines are signaling molecules that allow immune cells to communicate with each other and coordinate an immune response.

Types of Cytokines

1. Interferons (IFN)

  • Produced in response to viral infections
  • Interfere with viral replication
  • Activate immune cells, such as natural killer cells and macrophages

2. Interleukins (IL)

  • Produced by leukocytes (white blood cells)
  • Involved in activation and proliferation of immune cells
  • Examples: IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6

3. Tumor Necrosis Factors (TNF)

  • Produced by macrophages and T cells
  • Involved in inflammation and apoptosis (cell death)
  • Examples: TNF-alpha, TNF-beta

4. Chemokines

  • Involved in chemotaxis (cell migration)
  • Attract immune cells to sites of inflammation
  • Examples: CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8

5. Colony-Stimulating Factors (CSF)

  • Involved in proliferation and differentiation of immune cells
  • Examples: G-CSF, M-CSF, GM-CSF

6. Growth Factors

  • Involved in growth and differentiation of immune cells
  • Examples: EGF, FGF, PDGF

7. Cytokine Inhibitors

  • Produced to regulate cytokine activity
  • Examples: IL-10, TGF-beta

Note: These categories are not mutually exclusive, and some cytokines can have multiple functions.

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