Immunology: Cytokines and Opportunistic Pathogens

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What is the function of cytokines?

Regulate the intensity and duration of immune responses and blood cells

What is an opportunistic pathogen?

A pathogen that is harmless in normal conditions but becomes harmful in a compromised host

What is a nosocomial infection?

An infection that occurs in hospitals

Who discovered Koch's postulates?

Robert Koch

What is herd immunity?

Immunity in most of a population, limiting outbreaks to sporadic cases

What is the difference between a sign and a symptom?

A sign is measurable, while a symptom is only felt by the patient.

What is the effect of endotoxins released by gram-negative bacteria?

They cause disseminated intravascular coagulation.

What does the ID 50 measure?

The infectious dose for 50% of a sample population.

What is opsonization?

The enhancement of phagocytosis by coating microorganisms with serum proteins.

What type of vaccine contains inactivated toxins produced by a pathogen?

Toxoid vaccine

Learn about the proteins that regulate immune responses and cell-to-cell communication in the body, as well as the concept of opportunistic pathogens. This quiz covers the definitions and characteristics of cytokines and opportunistic pathogens as related to immunology.

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