Cytokines and Interleukins in Immunology
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Cytokines and Interleukins in Immunology

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Questions and Answers

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of cytokines?

Have a molecular mass greater than 30 kDa

Which family of cytokines is responsible for promoting proinflammatory signals?

Interleukin 1 (IL-1) family

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Interleukin 1 (IL-1) family of cytokines?

Generally anti-inflammatory, inducing a decrease in capillary permeability and leukocyte migration

Which of the six families of cytokines is known to be involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis?

<p>Hematopoietin (Class I cytokine) family</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which family of cytokines is responsible for antiviral and antiproliferative effects?

<p>Interferon (Class II cytokine) family</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cytokine family is primarily involved in the recruitment and activation of leukocytes during an inflammatory response?

<p>Chemokine family</p> Signup and view all the answers

What do chemokines primarily do?

<p>Induce T cells movement towards antigen-presenting cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the significant activity of cytokines first recognized in the mid-1960s?

<p>Regulation of immune system cell functions</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of Mitogens as described in the text?

<p>Inducing cell division</p> Signup and view all the answers

What technology allowed for the production of artificially generated T-cell tumors that constitutively produced IL-2?

<p>Hybridoma technology</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did gene cloning techniques in the 1970s and 1980s make possible?

<p>Expression of proteins from cloned genes in bacteria or yeast cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

How did researchers identify cell lines dependent on specific cytokines?

<p>By providing pure cytokine preparations and detecting growth dependencies</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of chemokines?

<p>To mobilize immune cells from one location to another</p> Signup and view all the answers

What cellular process do chemokines influence to mobilize immune cells?

<p>Cytoskeleton assembly and disassembly</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the reason behind the naming of interleukins?

<p>They communicate between leukocytes</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT an example of an interleukin?

<p>Tumor Necrosis Factor</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which immune cell type secretes Interleukin 1 (IL-1)?

<p>Macrophages</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of cytokines in general?

<p>To regulate the immune response</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Cytokines and Chemokines

  • Cytokines can signal immune cells to increase or decrease enzyme activity, change their transcriptional program, and alter their effector functions.
  • They can also instruct cells when to survive and when to die.

Interleukins

  • Interleukins are cytokines that communicate between white blood cells (leukocytes).
  • Examples: Interleukin 1 (IL-1) secreted by macrophages, Interleukin 2 (IL-2) secreted by activated T cells.

Chemokines

  • Chemokines are a subpopulation of cytokines that mobilize immune cells from one organ to another.
  • They belong to the class of molecules called chemoattractants, which attract cells by influencing cytoskeleton proteins and cell-surface adhesion molecules.
  • Chemokines attract cells with the appropriate chemokine receptors to regions with the highest chemokine concentration.

Cytokine Families

  • Cytokines belong to one of six families: Interleukin 1 (IL-1), Hematopoietin (Class I), Interferon (Class II), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), Interleukin 17 (IL-17), and Chemokine families.
  • Cytokines are relatively small proteins with a molecular mass of less than 30 kDa, and many are glycosylated.

IL-1 Family

  • Cytokines of the IL-1 family promote proinflammatory signals.
  • They are typically secreted by dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages in response to viral, parasitic, or bacterial antigens.
  • IL-1 family members induce an increase in capillary permeability and amplify leukocyte migration into infected tissues.

General Properties of Cytokines and Chemokines

  • Cytokines were first recognized in the mid-1960s as soluble factors regulating proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of immune system cells.
  • Hybridoma technology and gene cloning techniques enabled the production of pure cytokines and identification of cell lines dependent on particular cytokines.

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