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Comparison of Nervous and Endocrine System, Muscle Physiology

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39 Questions

What initiates the shortening process in muscle contraction?

Binding of Myosin to Actin forming a crossbridge

Which receptors are found on the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (S.R.) in muscle contraction?

Ryanodine receptors (RyR)

What does Calcium do in muscle contraction?

Binds to Troponin binding sites

Which event directly leads to the formation of a CrossBridge in muscle contraction?

Binding of Myosin to Actin

What causes the Power Stroke in muscle contraction?

Hydrolysis of ATP transferring energy to myosin head

What is the role of ATP in muscle contraction?

Binds to myosin head and detaches it from actin

Where are the primary target tissues of the Nervous System?

Muscles, glands, and adipose tissue

What is the primary function of the Endocrine System?

Regulate long-term processes in the body

Which muscle type is classified as 'Striated'?

Skeletal muscle

What is the primary component of the thin filaments in muscle physiology?

Actin

What protein attaches the entire muscle fiber unit to the sarcolemma?

Dystrophin

Which organelle is responsible for ATP production in muscle cells?

Mitochondria

What is the function of Titin in muscle physiology?

Stabilizing the thick filament

Where is calcium stored in a muscle cell?

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

What is the role of Calmodulin in muscle contraction?

Binds with calcium ions to activate Enzyme MLKinase

Which type of smooth muscle consists of discrete units that must be separately stimulated by nerves to contract?

Multiunit smooth muscle

What is a characteristic feature of single-unit smooth muscle?

Contain gap junctions for electrical linkage

What distinguishes multiunit smooth muscle from single-unit smooth muscle?

Multiunit contracts all together, while single-unit contracts individually

In which type of muscle are cells interconnected by intercalated discs formed by gap junctions and desmosomes?

Cardiac muscle

What is a key feature of cardiac muscle contraction compared to skeletal muscle contraction?

Contraction is all-or-nothing

What type of muscle fibers stop at glycolysis and are anaerobic?

Fast-glycolytic

Which type of muscle fibers have fewer blood vessels due to the lack of myoglobin?

Fast-glycolytic

What is the underlying cause of muscle fatigue related to lack of ATP?

Accumulation of lactic acid

Which region of the brain plays a role in maintaining balance and controlling eye movements?

Cerebellum

What genetic disease affects 1-3 men and causes inadequate shortening and lengthening of muscles?

Muscular dystrophy

What type of muscle fibers fatigue less and are rich in red color due to increased myoglobin?

Oxidative

Which structure monitors the force/tension created by muscles and protects them from excessive injury?

Golgi tendon organ

Which type of muscle lacks striations and has spindle-shaped cells with single nuclei?

Smooth muscle

What neurotransmitter is associated with the basal nuclei in the cerebral primary motor cortex?

Dopamine

What role does the cerebrocerebellum play in motor control?

Initiating voluntary activity

What is the role of ATP in muscle contraction?

Breaks down into ADP + P during contraction

What is the main source of energy for muscle contraction as mentioned in the text?

Glycogen

Which type of muscle fibers are frequently used in daily activities such as walking and standing?

Slow-oxidative (type 1) fibers

What occurs during Isometric contractions?

Force is created with no movement

What is the significance of the Length-Tension Relationship in muscle contractions?

Optimal length allows for the most crossbridges to form, maximizing strength during contraction

What leads to Rigor Mortis in muscles?

Inability to release calcium due to lack of ATP

What does Twitch represent in muscle contractions?

Brief, weak contraction from a single action potential

How does Twitch Summation differ from Tetanus?

'Twitch → Twitch Summation' results from single action potentials, while Tetanus is due to sustained contractile activity.

Which energy source is involved in transferring high-energy phosphate to ADP during muscle contraction?

Creatine Phosphate

This quiz covers the differences between the nervous and endocrine systems, including their response time and target tissues, as well as the types of muscle (skeletal, cardiac, smooth) and the structure of skeletal muscle fibers. Test your knowledge about these biological systems and muscle physiology in this quiz.

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