AQA A-Level Psychology: Memory

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12 Questions

What is the primary function of the sensory register in the Multi-Store Model of Memory?

To receive information from the senses and hold it for a brief period

What is the main difference between short-term memory and long-term memory in terms of duration?

LTM has a longer duration than STM

According to the Multi-Store Model of Memory, how is information transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory?

Through elaborative rehearsal and rehearsal

What is the primary characteristic of long-term memory in terms of capacity?

It has an unlimited capacity

Which of the following is NOT a type of long-term memory?

Short-term memory

What is the main purpose of the Multi-Store Model of Memory?

To explain the process of information processing

What type of memory is responsible for recalling personal experiences and events?

Episodic memory

What is the term for the failure to retrieve information from long-term memory due to the absence of appropriate retrieval cues?

Retrieval failure

Which type of interference occurs when newer, less relevant information interferes with the retrieval of older, more relevant information?

Retroactive interference

What technique is used to improve the accuracy of eyewitness testimony?

Cognitive interview technique

Which component of the Working Memory Model is responsible for integrating information from all three main systems and maintaining time-sequencing recording events as they happen?

Episodic buffer

What is the name of the model of memory proposed by Baddeley and Hitch?

Working Memory Model

Study Notes

AQA A-Level Psychology Memory

Memory is a cognitive ability that is crucial to human development and functioning. In the field of psychology, memory is a topic of significant interest due to its complexity and importance. This article will explore the topic of memory, focusing on information processing, types of long-term memory, retrieval failure, eyewitness testimony, and models of memory.

Information Processing

Memory is a cognitive process that involves encoding, storing, and retrieving information. The Multi-Store Model of Memory, proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin, suggests that memory consists of three stores: sensory register, short-term memory (STM), and long-term memory (LTM).

The Multi-Store Model of Memory

The Multi-Store Model (MSM) divides memory into three distinct stores:

  1. Sensory register: Receives information from the senses and has a duration of ¼ to ½ second and a large capacity.
  2. Short-term memory (STM): Information is transferred from the sensory register if attention is paid. It has a duration of 0-18 seconds and a small capacity, and information decays if not maintained through rehearsal.
  3. Long-term memory (LTM): Information is transferred from STM if it is rehearsed or through elaborative rehearsal. LTM has an unlimited duration and capacity and is encoded mainly in semantic form.

Types of Long-Term Memory

Long-term memory is divided into three types:

  1. Episodic memory: Recall of personal experiences and events, involving the recall of actions and the temporal order in which they occurred.
  2. Semantic memory: General knowledge and concepts, including facts and facts about objects and situations.
  3. Procedural memory: Knowledge of how to perform skills and tasks, such as riding a bike or playing a musical instrument.

Retrieval Failure

Retrieval failure can occur when information is not accessible from long-term memory due to the absence of appropriate retrieval cues. This can be due to proactive and retroactive interference, which are types of interference in memory.

  • Proactive interference: Occurs when older, less relevant information interferes with the retrieval of newer, more relevant information.
  • Retroactive interference: Occurs when newer, less relevant information interferes with the retrieval of older, more relevant information.

Eyewitness Testimony

Eyewitness testimony is the testimony of a person who has seen an event. The accuracy of eyewitness testimony can be affected by various factors, including misleading information, leading questions, post-event discussion, and anxiety. To improve the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, the cognitive interview technique can be used.

Models of Memory

The Multi-Store Model is one of several models of memory. Other models, such as the Working Memory Model, also contribute to our understanding of memory processes.

The Working Memory Model

The Working Memory Model, proposed by Baddeley and Hitch, includes the central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and episodic buffer.

  • Central executive: Responsible for coordinating and controlling the activities of the other components.
  • Phonological loop: Deals with the processing and temporary storage of verbal information.
  • Visuospatial sketchpad: Deals with the processing and temporary storage of visual and spatial information.
  • Episodic buffer: Integrates information from all three main systems and maintains time-sequencing recording events as they happen.

Conclusion

Memory is a complex cognitive process that involves encoding, storing, and retrieving information. The Multi-Store Model and other models of memory provide valuable insights into the structure and processes of memory. Understanding memory processes is essential for psychology students preparing for their AQA A-Level examinations.

Explore the complex cognitive process of memory, including information processing, types of long-term memory, retrieval failure, eyewitness testimony, and models of memory, as covered in the AQA A-Level Psychology curriculum.

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