Session 2: Comparing Genesis Creation Story with Ancient Near East Myths

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Unveiling the Ancient Near East's Creation Stories: Similarities and Differences with Genesis

In the rich tapestry of human history, the creation accounts woven throughout ancient texts reveal profound insights into our ancestors' understanding of their origins and the universe's mysteries. This exploration dives into the similarities and differences between the Genesis creation narrative and other stories from the Ancient Near East, focusing on the order of creation, the role of gods, the purpose of creation, characters, and themes.

Order of Creation

The Genesis story follows the familiar pattern of light, earth, waters, plants, sun, moon, and stars, followed by the creation of animals and finally, humans in God's image. In contrast, the Babylonian Enuma Elish and Sumerians' Atrahasis Epic present a more tumultuous, battles-driven genesis of the cosmos, with the gods Marduk and Enki, respectively, shaping the world.

Role of Gods

The Genesis account presents a single, omnipotent deity, whereas other ancient texts depict a pantheon of gods, each with their unique powers and spheres of influence. In the Enuma Elish, Marduk, the most powerful god, defeats the sea god Tiamat to establish order, and the other gods submit to his rule. In the Atrahasis Epic, the gods create humans to alleviate their workload, which eventually leads to the gods attempting to destroy humanity, only to be convinced otherwise by the wise man Atrahasis.

Purpose of Creation

Genesis presents creation as a divine act, with God creating for the sake of humanity, granting them dominion over the earth. In contrast, the Babylonian Enuma Elish depicts the gods creating humans as a means to lighten their burdens, and the Sumerians' Atrahasis Epic also portrays the gods as creating humanity for their own benefit.


The Genesis story features Adam and eve, while the Enuma Elish and Atrahasis Epic both have an abundance of gods and goddesses, as well as human characters like Marduk and Atrahasis. The Genesis narrative, however, does not include the complex interactions and relationships among the gods present in the Babylonian and Sumerian accounts.


Genesis presents the themes of creation, dominion, and human relationships with God, while the Babylonian and Sumerian creation stories emphasize conflict, negotiation, and hierarchy among gods, and the consequences of human action. Both Genesis and the Enuma Elish depict creation as a process of overcoming chaos, but Genesis presents it as a calm, ordered event, while the Enuma Elish portrays it as a tumultuous battle.

In conclusion, the Genesis creation narrative and the creation stories from the Ancient Near East share some themes and elements, such as the creation of light, earth, and humanity, but also reveal stark differences in their deity composition, the nature of creation, and the motivations behind it. By examining these texts, we can better understand our ancient ancestors' worldviews and the evolution of religious thought.


Explore the similarities and differences between the Genesis creation narrative and other ancient texts from the Near East, focusing on the order of creation, role of gods, purpose of creation, characters, and themes. Dive into the intriguing contrasts in deity composition, creation processes, and motivations behind creation across these ancient stories.

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