World History Final Exam Study Guide
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World History Final Exam Study Guide

This study guide covers various ancient civilizations and religions, including Hinduism, Judaism, Assyrians, Persians, Buddhism, Ancient African Kingdoms, Christianity, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, and Islam. Prepare for your world history final exam with this comprehensive guide!

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Questions and Answers

How many Gods do Christians believe in?

One

What is the first section of the Christian Bible also known as?

The Hebrew Bible

What is the main theme of the six major Christian teachings?

Helping others

What is the name of the Christian holiday that celebrates the resurrection of Jesus?

<p>Easter</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was the geographic and political center of Greek life?

<p>The polis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was each polis made up of?

<p>Farming villages, fields, and orchards grouped around an acropolis</p> Signup and view all the answers

How many citizens lived in an average city-state?

<p>Between 5,000 and 10,000</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who were NOT considered citizens in ancient Greece?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What two things were citizens expected to do in return for their rights?

<p>Take part in government and defend their polis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a constitution?

<p>A set of principles and rules for governing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What method of farming did the people of Aksumite Empire use?

<p>Farming on terraces</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was one of the achievements of the Aksumite Empire?

<p>Minted gold coins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was a notable feature of the Aksumite Empire's architecture?

<p>60 feet tall stone monuments</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was another achievement of the Aksumite Empire?

<p>Developed a system of writing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What allowed the Ghanaian warriors to expand their empire?

<p>Learning how to smelt iron</p> Signup and view all the answers

What were the two most important goods carried by camels or donkeys on the trade routes?

<p>Gold and salt</p> Signup and view all the answers

Who conquered Ghana by 1240 A.D.?

<p>The king of Mali</p> Signup and view all the answers

What was one reason Sundiata Keita was famous?

<p>He made a pilgrimage to Arabia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where did the king of Mali have an architect build a university?

<p>Timbuktu</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the position of Christianity among the three monotheistic religions?

<p>Second oldest</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main theme of the Christian Bible's New Testament?

<p>The life, teachings, and death of Jesus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between the Old and New Testaments?

<p>The Old Testament is about the history of the Israelites, while the New Testament is about the life of Jesus</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the six major Christian teachings?

<p>Help the poor, widows, and orphans</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the fortified hill in the center of a polis?

<p>Acropolis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the population range of an average city-state?

<p>Between 5,000 and 10,000 citizens</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the things that only citizens could do in ancient Greece?

<p>Own property</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the rich merchant who was chosen to make changes to the government of Athens?

<p>Solon</p> Signup and view all the answers

What did Solon's constitution do?

<p>Set a limit on how much land a person could own</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the name of the two greatest Greek city-states?

<p>Athens and Sparta</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is one of the main differences between Athens and Sparta?

<p>Athens had a strong navy, while Sparta had a strong army</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Hinduism

  • Hinduism is the 3rd largest religion in the world with 1 billion followers.
  • India has the largest Hindu population.
  • Brahman is the supreme or highest God or force in Hinduism, and everything is a part of and a manifestation of this being.
  • Brahman creates the universe, keeps it going, destroys it, then recreates it in a never-ending cycle.
  • Vishnu is the part of Brahman that sustains the universe and comes to Earth occasionally as a human to bring balance to good and evil.
  • Avatar is the word that best matches the description of a God coming to Earth as a human.
  • Shiva is the part of Brahman that destroys bad things in the world to allow good things to happen.
  • Samsara is the cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth that everyone is caught in.

Judaism

  • Judaism believes in one God.
  • The Torah is a collection of 5 books that tells the early history of the Jewish people and lists their laws.
  • Kosher is the Hebrew word for foods that Jewish people are allowed to eat.
  • Jewish people are not allowed to eat pig meat.
  • Passover is the English name for the Jewish holiday called "Pesach".
  • The Jewish New Year is the English name for the Jewish holiday "Rosh Hashanah".
  • Saturday is the day of the week when Jewish people often gather together to worship, pray, and study the Torah.
  • Temple, Synagogue, and Shul are the three names for the place where Jewish people often gather together.
  • Rabbis are the leaders of the places where Jewish people often gather together.

Assyrians and Chaldeans

  • The Assyrians rose to power in Mesopotamia.
  • The Assyrians found a way to conquer people without fighting by spreading stories of their cruelty and frightening others into surrender.
  • The Assyrian kings divided their empire into provinces, or political districts, and chose officials to govern each province.
  • A system of roads connected all the provinces in the Assyrian Empire.
  • The Assyrian empire came to an end because it became too large to govern and various conquered people worked to end Assyrian rule.
  • The Chaldeans captured Nineveh, the Assyrian capital, and the Assyrian Empire crumbled shortly after.
  • Nebuchadnezzar was the Chaldean king who extended their empire's boundaries.
  • The Chaldeans built a new capital at Babylon.
  • In 539 B.C., the Persians from the mountains to the northeast captured Babylon.

Persians

  • The Persians finally settled in a region on a high plain between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea.
  • The Medes conquered the Persians around 600 B.C., but Cyrus, a Persian king, overthrew the Medes.
  • The Persians treated their subjects mildly and allowed them to keep their own languages, religions, and laws.
  • They believed loyalty could be won more easily if they treated their subjects with fairness rather than with fear or force.
  • Darius was one of the strongest Persian kings.
  • Persepolis was the Persian capital city.
  • Zoroaster was a religious leader who arose around 570 B.C. in Persia.
  • Zoroaster taught the Persians about the god or gods, including the idea that one god, Ahura Mazda, was wise and truthful, and that there was a constant struggle between good and evil.

Buddhism

  • Buddhism is the 4th largest religion in the world.
  • The word Buddha means "Awakened" or "enlightened one".
  • Siddhartha Gautama is the founder of Buddhism.
  • Buddhism came from Hinduism.
  • There are around 500 million Buddhists in the world.
  • China has the largest number of Buddhist people, followed by Thailand.
  • Siddhartha was born in Nepal.
  • People were kept from Siddhartha, including the fact that they learned to farm on terraces, minted gold coins, built stone monuments, and developed a writing system.

Ancient African Kingdoms

  • Ghanaian warriors expanded the boundaries of their country and gained control over West Africa's major trade routes by learning how to smelt iron and making iron swords and lances.
  • The two most important goods carried on the trade routes were gold and salt.
  • The king of Mali conquered Ghana by 1240 A.D. and one of the most famous kings of Mali was Sundiata Keita.
  • Sundiata Keita was famous for his pilgrimage to Arabia in 1324-25 and for having an architect build a university in Timbuktu.

Christianity

  • Christianity is the second oldest of the three monotheistic religions.
  • There are around 2 billion Christians in the world.
  • The Roman Catholic Church is the largest of the three major Christian denominations, followed by Protestant and Eastern Orthodox.
  • Jesus Christ is the founder of Christianity.
  • Jesus was born in Israel.
  • Jesus was executed by the Romans around 33 A.D. and his followers claimed that God brought him back to life after his execution.
  • In 312 A.D., the Roman Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and made it a legal religion.
  • Christians believe in one God.
  • The Christian Bible has two major sections: the New Testament and the Old Testament.
  • The Old Testament is the same as the Hebrew Bible.

Ancient Greek

  • The polis was the geographic and political center of Greek life.
  • Each polis was made up of farming villages, fields, and orchards grouped around a fortified hill called an acropolis.
  • An average city-state had between 5,000 and 10,000 citizens.
  • Women, workers born outside Greece, enslaved people, and children were not citizens.
  • Only citizens could own property, hold public office, speak for themselves in court, and vote.
  • Citizens were expected to take part in government, defend their polis in time of war or conflict, and participate in civic activities.
  • Athens and Sparta were the two greatest Greek city-states, which developed differently with different kinds of government and ways of life.
  • Solon was a rich merchant who was chosen to make changes to the government of Athens in 594 B.C. and prepared a constitution.
  • A constitution is a set of principles and rules for governing.
  • Solon's constitution set a limit on how much land a person could own.

Buddha's Life and Teachings

  • Siddhartha saw an old man, a sick man, and a dead man, which disturbed him and led him to seek how to end suffering and find peace.
  • The First Noble Truth: All is suffering; nothing is satisfying.
  • The Second Noble Truth: The causes of suffering are desire, ignorance, and hatred.
  • The Third Noble Truth: To get rid of suffering, you must get rid of desire; when a person overcomes desire, ignorance, and hatred, they have reached Nirvana, a state of freedom.
  • The Fourth Noble Truth: To get rid of desire, you must follow the Eightfold Path.

Nirvana and Karma

  • Nirvana is a state of freedom from suffering and a state of peace that can be achieved while alive.
  • Nirvana means "to extinguish" or "blow out" like a candle flame.
  • A person is no longer reborn after achieving Nirvana.
  • Good karma is created by following the Eightfold Path.

Buddhism and Others

  • Buddhism is a missionary religion.
  • The leader of the Tibetan Buddhists is the Dalai Lama.

Ancient African Kingdoms

  • The ancient African civilization of Kush was located south of Egypt on the Nile River in present-day Sudan.
  • Small pyramids stood in the royal cemetery.
  • The kingdom that rose to take Kush's place is Aksum, located in present-day Ethiopia.
  • The Aksumite emperor Ezana converted to Christianity in 324 A.D.
  • The Aksumites achieved many things, including minting gold coins and building stone monuments.

Judaism

  • Judaism believes in one god.
  • The Torah is a collection of five books that tells the early history of the Jewish people and lists their laws.
  • Kosher is the Hebrew word for foods that Jewish people are allowed to eat.
  • Pig is a type of meat that Jewish people are not allowed to eat.
  • Passover is the English name for the Jewish holiday "Pesach".
  • The Jewish New Year is the English name for the Jewish holiday "Rosh Hashanah".
  • Saturday is the day of the week when Jewish people often gather together to worship, pray, and study the Torah.
  • Temple, Synagogue, and Shul are the three names for the place where Jewish people gather together.
  • Rabbis are the leaders of these places.

Assyrians and Chaldeans

  • The Assyrians rose to power in Mesopotamia.
  • The Assyrians found a way to conquer people without fighting by spreading stories of their cruelty.
  • The Assyrian kings divided their empire into provinces and chose officials to govern each province.
  • A system of roads connected all the provinces.
  • The Assyrian empire came to an end because it became too large to govern, and the Chaldeans captured Nineveh, the Assyrian capital.
  • Nebuchadnezzar was the Chaldean king who extended their empire's boundaries.

Other Civilizations

  • The Ghanaian warriors expanded their country's boundaries and gained control over West Africa's major trade routes by learning how to smelt iron and making iron swords and lances.
  • The two most important goods carried on the trade routes were gold and salt.
  • Sundiata Keita was one of the most famous kings of Mali, who made a pilgrimage to Arabia in 1324-25 and had an architect build a university in Timbuktu.

Christianity

  • Christianity is the second oldest of the three monotheistic religions.
  • There are around 2 billion Christians in the world.
  • The Roman Catholic is the largest of the three major Christian denominations.
  • The Protestant is the second largest, and the Eastern Orthodox is the smallest.
  • Jesus Christ is the founder of Christianity, born in Israel.
  • Jesus was executed by the Romans around 33 A.D., but his followers claimed that God brought him back to life after his execution.
  • In 312 A.D., the Roman Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and made it a legal religion.

Ancient African Kingdoms

  • The people of Ghana learned to farm on terraces and minted gold coins, built stone monuments 60 feet tall, and developed a writing system.
  • Ghanaian warriors expanded the boundaries of their country and gained control over West Africa’s major trade routes by learning how to smelt iron and making iron swords and lances.
  • The two most important goods carried on the trade routes were gold and salt.
  • The king of Mali, Sundiata Keita, conquered Ghana by 1240 A.D. and was famous for making a pilgrimage to Arabia in 1324-25.

Christianity

  • Christianity is the second oldest of the three monotheistic religions.
  • There are around 2 billion Christians in the world.
  • The largest Christian denomination is Roman Catholic, the second largest is Protestant, and the smallest is Eastern Orthodox.
  • Jesus Christ is the founder of Christianity, born in Israel.
  • Jesus was executed by the Romans, but his followers claim that God brought him back to life after his execution.
  • In 312 A.D., the Roman Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and made it a legal religion.

Buddhism

  • Siddhartha saw an old man, a sick man, and a dead man, which disturbed him and made him want to find a way to end suffering and reach peace.
  • The four noble truths are: all is suffering, the causes of suffering are desire, ignorance, and hatred, to get rid of suffering you must get rid of desire, and to get rid of desire you must follow the Eightfold Path.
  • Nirvana is a state of freedom from suffering and a state of peace, which can be achieved while alive.

Ancient Greek City-States

  • The polis, or city-state, was the geographic and political center of Greek life, made up of farming villages, fields, and orchards grouped around a fortified hill called an acropolis.
  • In an average city-state, there were between 5,000 and 10,000 citizens.
  • Citizens had rights and responsibilities, including owning property, holding public office, speaking for themselves in court, and voting.
  • Citizens were expected to take part in government, defend their polis in time of war or conflict.

Other

  • The kingdom of Aksum rose to take the place of Kush and is located in present-day Ethiopia.
  • The Aksumite emperor Ezana converted to Christianity in 324 A.D.

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