Week 10 Med-Surg: Neurological Disorders Quiz
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Week 10 Med-Surg: Neurological Disorders Quiz

Test your knowledge on topics related to neurology including caffeine's role in headache relief, lifespan of ALS, MS, and MG, differences in demyelination between ALS and MS, and seizures.

Created by
@TopQualityPegasus

Questions and Answers

What is a common risk factor for seizures?

Fever

Which type of seizure often involves stiffening or rigidity of muscles?

Tonic-clonic seizure

What is a distinguishing feature of the postictal stage of a seizure event?

Confusion

How do partial seizures differ from generalized seizures?

<p>Partial seizures are more responsive to medical treatment.</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which diagnostic test is commonly used for investigating underlying causes of seizures?

<p>CT scan</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a crucial long-term management strategy for preventing seizure activity?

<p>Monitoring for aura signs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are common anticonvulsants used for seizures?

<p>Carbamazepine</p> Signup and view all the answers

During a seizure event, what should you NOT do?

<p>Insert anything into the patient's mouth</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the age range within which the onset of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) usually occurs?

<p>30-50 years old</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which gender is more affected by Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?

<p>Women are affected more</p> Signup and view all the answers

What should be done during the postictal phase following a seizure?

<p>Place the patient in a rescue position</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a characteristic symptom of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?

<p>Loss of sensation and movement</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which symptom is commonly associated with multiple sclerosis?

<p>Peripheral paresis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What sign is described as electric-shock sensations with certain neck movements in multiple sclerosis?

<p>Lhermitte sign</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which symptom is NOT typically associated with multiple sclerosis?

<p>Decreased libido</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common diagnostic test used to detect demyelination in multiple sclerosis?

<p>Evoked potential tests</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which medication is commonly used for managing neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis?

<p>Lexapro</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main goal of interdisciplinary care for multiple sclerosis patients?

<p>Slow disease progression and manage symptoms</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which symptom is a common manifestation of Parkinson's disease according to the text?

<p>Poor balance</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a psychological effect commonly associated with Parkinson's disease?

<p>Depression</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which surgical intervention is mentioned in the text as a treatment option for Parkinson's disease?

<p>Deep brain stimulation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main neurotransmitter affected in Myasthenia Gravis as described in the text?

<p>Acetylcholine (ACh)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which symptom characterizes Myasthenia Gravis based on the text?

<p>Rapid onset of voluntary muscle fatigue</p> Signup and view all the answers

TRUE or FALSE: Levodopa is used in the treatment of Myasthenia Gravis.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common early symptom of the condition discussed in the text?

<p>Muscle weakness</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a psychological effect mentioned in the text as part of the clinical manifestations?

<p>Anger</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which diagnostic test is used for differential diagnosis according to the text?

<p>Electromyography (EMG)</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does Ritutek do in the treatment of the condition discussed in the text?

<p>Releases glutamate to control motor neuron destruction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is an example of a nursing consideration related to the condition?

<p>Fall risk assessment</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can OT (Occupational Therapy) assist with according to the text?

<p>Helping in early stages</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Clinical Manifestations of ALS

  • Progressive symptomology that will progress to affect generalized muscle activity/movement, speech, swallowing, breathing
  • Impaired/absent mobility, worsening dysphasia, dysphagia, dysarthria, and airway insufficiency
  • Impaired mood and cognition, including labile affect, depression, anger, and grief

Diagnostics and Interventions for ALS

  • Differential diagnosis using electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies to rule out other causes of musculoskeletal dysfunction
  • Interdisciplinary care including occupational therapy, drug therapies, and nursing considerations for alternative communication needs, impaired airway clearance, fall risk, aspiration risk, impaired mobility, depression, and risk for respiratory insufficiency

Clinical Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

  • Progressive deterioration of the central nervous system (CNS) leading to progressive loss of cognition, sensation, and movement
  • Early symptoms include diplopia, blurred vision, pain with eye movement, and unilateral loss of vision
  • Common symptoms include peripheral paresis, paresthesia, and/or paralysis, electric-shock sensations, tremors, ataxia, and fatigue
  • Other symptoms include slurred speech, dizziness/vertigo, neuropathic pain, problems with sexual, bowel and bladder function, tinnitus, dysphagia, dysarthria, nystagmus, brain fog, and memory deficits
  • Psychological effects include labile affect, depression, anger, and grief

Diagnostics and Interventions for MS

  • Differential diagnosis to rule out other causes of CNS dysfunction
  • Serum tests, evoked potential tests, and MRI to detect demyelination along spine and brain
  • Interdisciplinary care including drug therapy, plasmapheresis, and muscle relaxants to slow disease progression
  • Goal of symptom management and slow disease progression

Clinical Manifestations of Parkinson's Disease (PD)

  • Progressive, neurodegenerative disease of the CNS
  • Presence of TRAP (Tremors, Rigidity, Akinesia, Postural instability)
  • Early symptoms include unilateral presentation, pain, and tremors
  • Common symptoms include bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and resting tremors
  • Other symptoms include dysphagia, dysarthria, nystagmus, brain fog, and memory deficits
  • Psychological effects include labile affect, depression, anger, and grief

Diagnostics and Interventions for PD

  • Differential diagnosis using anti-Parkinson's medication challenge
  • Interdisciplinary care including drug therapies, surgical interventions, and psychological and social supports
  • Goal of symptom control and improvement of quality of life

Clinical Manifestations of Myasthenia Gravis (MG)

  • Progressive, autoimmune disease that destroys acetylcholine (ACh) receptors
  • Causes miscommunication between neuro and musculoskeletal systems
  • Rapid onset of voluntary muscle fatigue with use, leading to voluntary muscle weakness
  • Onset typically in women under 40 years old and men over 60 years old

Seizures

  • Abnormal, sudden, excessive, uncontrolled electrical discharge within brain
  • Risks include metabolic disorders, fever, ETOH withdrawals, substance abuse, electrolyte imbalances, heart diseases, and decreased CO
  • Stages of seizure events include aura, seizure activity, and postictal period
  • Types of seizures include generalized, partial, tonic, clonic, tonic-clonic, absence, and myoclonic seizures

Long-Term Management of Seizures

  • Look for signs of aura for prevention of seizure activity
  • Nursing considerations and patient teaching for anticonvulsant medication therapy

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