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Neurological Disorders & Head Injuries: Components of the Nervous System

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98 Questions

What neurotransmitter is associated with learning and memory, as well as its involvement in Alzheimer’s disease?

Acetylcholine

Which neurotransmitter is linked to Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia?

Dopamine

What neurotransmitter is connected to depression, aggression, and schizophrenia?

Serotonin

Which neurotransmitter is known for its role in anxiety and epilepsy?

Gamma-aminobutyric

What is the 'Gate Keeper' that regulates incoming and outgoing signaling within the brain?

Reticular Formation

What plasmalike liquid fills the space between the arachnoid and pia mater layers to provide cushion and support?

Cerebrospinal fluid

What is the main function of the sympathetic nervous system?

Controls the changes in the body needed to respond to threats

Which type of cells in the nervous system are responsible for protecting neurons from pathogens?

Neuroglia cells

Why can neurons not be replaced if they are damaged?

They cannot 'cell divide'

Which part of the nervous system controls the changes required for the 'feed or breed' response?

Parasympathetic nervous system

In which type of nervous system do severed nerves have a better chance of reestablishing connections after injury?

Peripheral Nervous System

What is the primary function of neural tissue in the body?

Generate bioelectrical impulses

What is the function of the Dura Mater in the skull?

Lines the skull and separates different parts of the brain

Which part of the skull may hemorrhage during severe head trauma?

Temporal bone

What are the lobes contained in the Middle Fossa of the skull?

Temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes

Which layer of the meninges is described as a fragile web-like structure?

Arachnoid Mater

What is the calculation for cerebral perfusion pressures (CPP)?

$ ext{Mean Arterial Pressure} - ext{Intracranial Pressures}$

What is considered the normal range for Cerebral Perfusion Pressures (CPP)?

$60-80$ mmHg

What is the function of the Trigeminal Cranial Nerve?

Chewing, pain, and touch of the face and mouth

Which Cranial Nerve is primarily associated with hearing and balance?

Auditory

What is the main function of the Oculomotor Cranial Nerve?

Movement of the eyeball, pupil, and eyelid

Which space is located between the dura mater and the outside of the brain?

Subdural space

Which cranial nerve is involved in the movement of the eyeball?

Abducens

What is a common function of the Glossopharyngeal Cranial Nerve?

Swallowing and saliva secretion

What is the medical emergency status of Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIA)?

Emergencies that require immediate attention

What is the cause of Hemorrhagic Stroke?

Ruptured cerebral aneurysm

Which symptom is typically associated with Hemorrhagic Stroke?

Difficulty swallowing (Dysphagia)

What does AVM stand for in the context of strokes?

Arteriovenous malformation

What does the Cincinnati Stroke Scale help identify?

Large Vessel Occlusions

How does the Los Angeles Motor Scale aid in stroke assessment?

Assessing Large Vessel Occlusions

What is being assessed when a patient is asked to show their teeth (smile) in the RACE score?

Facial palsy

In the RACE score, how is the Arm Motor Function assessed by extending the patient's arm?

1: Moderate (limb upheld less than 10 seconds)

What does the RACE score evaluate by extending the leg of the patient?

Leg motor function

How is moderate Facial Palsy described in the RACE score?

(slightly asymmetrical)

Which part of the RACE score evaluates eye movements and cephalic deviation?

Leg Motor Function

What is the most common type of ischemic stroke described in the text?

Thrombotic Cerebral Thrombosis

What is the main cause of an Embolic Cerebral Embolism as mentioned in the text?

A small piece of plaque or clot lodged in a narrow artery

In the context of Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA), what is the pathophysiological result of hemorrhagic strokes?

Infarction caused by impaired cerebral perfusion

What is the primary consequence of continued blockage in cases of ischemic strokes due to thrombosis or emboli?

Brain death due to infarction

Which condition serves as a warning sign for a possible Stroke, according to the text?

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

What are the risk factors associated with Thrombotic Cerebral Thrombosis, as stated in the text?

"Risk Factors: Resulting from atherosclerosis"

What is the sensitivity rate of the BE FAST assessment in identifying Large Vessel Occlusions?

0.60

How long after the Last Known Well Time is the treatment window for Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) according to the text?

6-16 hours

Which medication is recommended for treating Ischemic Stroke according to the text?

TPA tissue plasminogen activator

What is the primary risk factor for Bell’s Palsy mentioned in the text?

Infection of herpes simplex virus

For Hemorrhagic Stroke, which procedure involves filling an aneurysm with coils to prevent bleeding?

Coiling (aneurysm embolization)

What is the main treatment approach for Bell’s Palsy as mentioned in the text?

Steroids and ABX

What type of injury occurs when the brain strikes the inner surface of the skull opposite the primary impact?

Contra coup injury

What is the primary cause of increased Intracranial Pressures (ICP) as per the Monro-Kellie Hypothesis?

An increase in the volume of one component within a fixed cavity

Which type of hematoma occurs between the dura layers and is characterized by the symptom 'worst headache of my life'?

Subdural hematoma

What kind of injury involves shearing, stretching, or tearing of nerve fibers?

Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI)

What is the crucial factor for good outcomes in patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury?

Initial care by EMS personnel

What is the outcome of patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury considered to be?

Unpredictable

What are the three components of Cushing's Triad that indicate brain herniation?

High blood pressure, low heart rate, irregular respirations

Which solution is used in severe cases of brain injury to help reduce intracranial pressure?

Mannitol

What is the goal for systolic blood pressures in traumatic brain injuries?

130-145

Why should Dextrose IV solutions be avoided in traumatic brain injuries?

To avoid increasing intracranial pressure

What is the target Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) for traumatic brain injuries?

>90 MAP

Why is hyperventilation indicated in traumatic brain injuries only for herniation?

To decrease intracranial pressure

What is the effect of increased carbon dioxide levels on cerebral blood vessels?

Increase intracranial pressure

What is the outcome of an incomplete spinal cord injury known as Anterior cord syndrome?

Paraplegia

Which level of spinal cord injury is usually fatal?

C1-C3

What is a consequence of low carbon dioxide levels on blood flow?

Constrict blood flow resulting in decreased CPP

Why is it important to manage the airway in cases of spinal cord injury?

Assist in treating shock

What type of hemorrhage is characterized by a lucid period and is arterial in nature?

Epidural hematoma

Which type of brain injury has the highest percentage of patients presenting to the ER, with most making uneventful recoveries?

Mild brain injury

What is the primary neurological assessment tool mentioned in the text that helps evaluate neurological function following brain injury?

Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)

Which type of hemorrhage occurs between the tough mother and cobweb mother and is more common, accounting for 30% of severe brain injuries?

Subdural hematoma

For a patient with a GCS score of 10, what level of brain injury category does this score typically fall under according to the text?

Moderate brain injury

Which part of the skull may hemorrhage during severe head trauma, located above the 'tough mother' mentioned in the text?

Dura mater

What is the primary medication used to treat Parkinson's Disease?

Levodopa

Which of the following types of medications can induce Parkinsonism?

Antipsychotics

What is the characteristic symptom of meningitis?

Severe headache

Which class of medications is implicated in inducing Serotonin Syndrome?

SSRIs

What is the main cause of bacterial or viral meningitis?

Bacteria or viruses

What is the primary pathophysiological mechanism of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)?

Rapid demyelination of motor neurons

In the context of seizure management, which medication is commonly used for its antiseizure properties and not typically for its sedative effects?

Phenobarbital

What distinguishes Myasthenia Gravis from other autoimmune disorders?

Sporadic muscle weakness affecting different muscle groups

Which factor contributes to the deadliness of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)?

Progressive muscular neuron death

What is a common sign that would necessitate ventilator support in individuals with Myasthenia Gravis?

Difficulty swallowing

What is the primary cause of neurogenic shock as mentioned in the text?

Central nervous system injury

Which symptom is not typically associated with neuro storms?

Bradycardia

What is the function of betablockers in the management of spine injuries?

To control neuro storms

What is the primary treatment for neurogenic shock according to the text?

0.9% NS infusion

Which condition is characterized by a 'loss of sensation and reflexes below the injury site'?

Spinal shock

What is the common cause of epilepsy as mentioned in the text?

Anoxia, trauma, toxins, and metabolic abnormalities

What is the pathophysiological process that leads to the development of hydrocephalus in meningitis?

Blockage of the draining system by thickened CSF

Which sign is used to assess resistance to painful knee extension in Kernig's sign?

Hip reflex

What is the most serious form of Spina Bifida where both meninges and spinal cord protrude through an opening in the vertebral column?

Myelomeningocele

In cerebral palsy, what is the primary cause of bilateral paralysis resulting from inadequate blood or oxygen supply to the brain?

Inadequate supply during fetal development

Which symptom is a characteristic sign of meningitis indicating neck stiffness?

Neck rigidity

What is the reflex response when pressure is applied to the cheeks in Brudzinski's sign?

Forearm flexion

Which autoimmune condition is characterized by symptoms progressing from distal to proximal and typically does not affect cardiac muscles?

Guillain-Barre Syndrome

What is the main feature of Multiple Sclerosis caused by the release of lymphokines and cytokines?

Sensory impairment

Which neurological disorder involves a degenerative process affecting dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia?

Parkinson's Disease

What distinguishes Guillain-Barre Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis in terms of muscle paralysis?

Progresses from proximal to distal

Which condition causes damage to nerve cells and targets muscles in the body, leading to poor speech and dysphagia?

Multiple Sclerosis

What distinguishes Guillain-Barre Syndrome from Parkinson's Disease in terms of progression and duration of symptoms?

Rapidly progressive over days to weeks

Study Notes

Neurotransmitters and Associated Disorders

  • Acetylcholine is associated with learning and memory, as well as its involvement in Alzheimer's disease.
  • Dopamine is linked to Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia.
  • Serotonin is connected to depression, aggression, and schizophrenia.
  • GABA is known for its role in anxiety and epilepsy.

Brain Structure and Function

  • The 'Gate Keeper' that regulates incoming and outgoing signaling within the brain is the Blood-Brain Barrier.
  • The cerebrospinal fluid fills the space between the arachnoid and pia mater layers to provide cushion and support.
  • The main function of the sympathetic nervous system is to prepare the body for "fight or flight" responses.
  • Microglia are the cells in the nervous system responsible for protecting neurons from pathogens.
  • Neurons cannot be replaced if they are damaged because they are post-mitotic cells.

Nervous System Control and Functions

  • The hypothalamus controls the changes required for the 'feed or breed' response.
  • In the peripheral nervous system, severed nerves have a better chance of reestablishing connections after injury.
  • The primary function of neural tissue in the body is to transmit and process information.
  • The Dura Mater in the skull provides protection and support to the brain.

Cranial Nerves and Functions

  • The Trigeminal Cranial Nerve is responsible for facial sensations, motor functions, and other functions.
  • The Vestibulocochlear Cranial Nerve is primarily associated with hearing and balance.
  • The Oculomotor Cranial Nerve is responsible for eye movements and eyelid opening.
  • The space between the dura mater and the outside of the brain is the Subdural Space.
  • The Oculomotor Cranial Nerve is involved in the movement of the eyeball.

Stroke and Cerebrovascular Accidents

  • Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIA) are considered a medical emergency.
  • The cause of Hemorrhagic Stroke is bleeding in the brain.
  • A symptom typically associated with Hemorrhagic Stroke is a sudden and severe headache.
  • AVM stands for Arteriovenous Malformation in the context of strokes.
  • The Cincinnati Stroke Scale helps identify strokes.
  • The Los Angeles Motor Scale aids in stroke assessment by evaluating motor function.

Brain Injury and Trauma

  • The primary cause of increased Intracranial Pressures (ICP) is the Monro-Kellie Hypothesis.
  • The type of hematoma that occurs between the dura layers and is characterized by the symptom 'worst headache of my life' is a Subdural Hematoma.
  • The type of injury that involves shearing, stretching, or tearing of nerve fibers is a Diffuse Axonal Injury.
  • The goal for systolic blood pressures in traumatic brain injuries is to maintain a range between 100-120 mmHg.

Neurological Disorders and Conditions

  • The primary cause of bacterial or viral meningitis is the presence of bacteria or viruses in the meninges.
  • The characteristic symptom of meningitis is a stiff neck and fever.
  • The primary pathophysiological mechanism of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the death of motor neurons.
  • The primary cause of neurogenic shock is a spinal cord injury.
  • The factor that contributes to the deadliness of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the degeneration of motor neurons.
  • The primary treatment for neurogenic shock is fluid resuscitation and vasopressors.

Miscellaneous

  • The primary medication used to treat Parkinson's Disease is Levodopa.
  • The type of hemorrhage that is characterized by a lucid period and is arterial in nature is an Epidural Hematoma.
  • The primary neurological assessment tool mentioned in the text that helps evaluate neurological function following brain injury is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS).
  • The primary cause of epilepsy is a disruption in normal electrical activity in the brain.
  • The primary cause of hydrocephalus in meningitis is the blockage of cerebrospinal fluid flow.
  • The sign used to assess resistance to painful knee extension in Kernig's sign is stiffness in the knee.
  • The most serious form of Spina Bifida is Myelomeningocele.

Learn about the components of the nervous system, including the Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). Explore how the CNS and PNS work together to receive and react to environmental stimuli at a physiologic and cognitive level.

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