Utilitarianism vs

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How does care ethics differ from Confucianism in terms of particularity and general principles?

Care ethics holds that care is particular, while Confucianism holds general principles.

What role does li serve in Confucianism and how does it relate to ren?

Li serves as a general principle guiding ren, which is the internalization of li. Though li is not ultimate, it is indispensable for the realization of ren.

What is the Confucian Golden Rule and how does it compare to the focus of care ethics?

The Confucian Golden Rule is 'Do not impose on others what you, yourself, do not desire.' This contrasts with care ethics, which is other-concerned and focuses on the needs of the cared for, rather than the desires of the carer.

How does Buddhism's ethical approach differ from Western traditions?

Buddhism's ethical approach differs from Western traditions in that it lacks a theory like Buddhism, and its questions and searches are not entirely unique. There are different approaches within Buddhism, with Theravada appearing to be virtue-oriented, and Santideva appearing to be consequentialist.

What are the four noble truths of Buddhism?

The four noble truths of Buddhism are: 1. suffering; 2. cause of suffering; 3. end of suffering; 4. path that leads to the end of suffering.

How does Buddhism view duty and obligation compared to deontology?

Buddhism is opposed to duty and lacks the metaphysics and structure to put obligation on others. Although there are duties in Buddhism, they are derived from insight into the nature of existence and delusions of selfhood.

What are the fundamental human goods according to Buddhism and how do they relate to human flourishing?

Buddhism's fundamental commitment is to principles that promote certain values or goods, which include life, knowledge, and friendship. These are fundamental to human flourishing.

What is the connection between Buddhism and utilitarianism?

The connection between Buddhism and utilitarianism is thought to be found in Buddhism's version of living meaningfully. However, the connections made between Buddhism and utilitarianism are tenuous, and it's not entirely clear if utilitarian calculus is always applicable to Buddhism.

What is deontology?

Deontology refers to what is proper or ought to be done, and it deals with moral obligations.

Who invented the term 'deontology' and what was its initial definition?

The term was invented by Jeremy Bentham, and its initial definition referred to the 'science of duty' or 'that branch of knowledge which deals with moral obligations'.

How did CD Broad redefine deontology and what was the effect of his redefinition?

CD Broad redefined deontology as duty or obligation based, effectively dividing ethics into two: deontological and teleological.

What is the problem with words such as 'fate' in the context of deontology?

The problem with words such as 'fate' is that we know what they mean, but we have no warranty to believe in such a thing, making us ask wrong questions.

What does deontology encompass?

The intrinsic rightness of an action, without defining what makes an action right.

How is deontology often understood?

Through negative definitions and is compared to the usage of the term 'foreigner.'

What are the two understandings of deontology?

Theories of what must or must not be done, and moral requirements that cannot be violated for the good.

Is deontology tied to epistemology or metaphysics?

No, it is not tied to epistemology or metaphysics and does not entail moral absolutism.

Who challenges the idea of absolutism in deontology?

WD Ross argues that none of deontology's duties are inviolable, challenging the idea of absolutism.

What does deontology prioritize?

Right before the good, unlike teleology which prioritizes the good before right.

What is Kant's ethics an analysis of?

Good-willing and the self-contained goodness of moral action.

What is Nietzsche's critique of utilitarianism linked to?

His critique of Christianity, questioning the internal coherence of utilitarianism.

What does Nietzsche criticize about utilitarianism?

The inconsistency in the pursuit of happiness and avoidance of suffering, as well as its connection to Christian values of equal worth of each individual.

What does Nietzsche's criticism of utilitarians seeking to benefit the herd indicate?

Possibly conflicting motives or different types of criticism.

Explain one criticism of utilitarianism mentioned in the text.

An advocate of cultural sensitivity criticizes utilitarian attempts to find a common criterion

What are the four virtues emphasized in Confucian ethics?

ren (benevolence), li (ritual propriety), yi (righteousness), and zhi (wisdom)

How does care ethics differ from Confucian ethics according to the text?

Care ethics is about the other, not the carer, and can lead to the carer doing the absurd. Confucian ethics cannot be reduced to care ethics, as caring is only a part of it and does not pursue universal principles

What does utilitarianism evaluate individual behavior and social policy based on?

Utility, reason, and intuition

Why is the theory of utilitarianism criticized according to the text?

For its inadequate specifications and restricted view of individuals’ utility function

What higher values are highlighted as criticisms of utilitarianism?

Equality

What does Confucianism emphasize as not the uppermost value, according to the text?

Ren (benevolence)

Who defends utilitarianism against criticisms according to the text?

Bernard Williams and standard moral rules in dealing with dilemmas

What does Confucian ethics reject in its relationship with care ethics?

Emphasizing that ren (benevolence) is not the uppermost value in Confucianism

What does care ethics focus on according to the text?

The other, not the carer

What does broad utilitarianism evaluate according to the text?

Desirability of individual behavior and social policy

How does utilitarianism respond to criticism according to the text?

By addressing issues of pesticide exposure and foreign aid

Study Notes

Comparing Utilitarianism and Confucian Ethics

  • An advocate of cultural sensitivity criticizes utilitarian attempts to find a common criterion
  • Utilitarianism is consistent with modern social scientific policy analysis, and advocates pragmatic market socialism
  • Broad utilitarianism avoids specificities and evaluates desirability of individual behavior and social policy based on utility, reason, and intuition
  • Critics of utilitarianism attack specific formulations instead of its general form
  • Utilitarianism responds to criticism by addressing issues of pesticide exposure and foreign aid
  • The theory of utilitarianism is criticized for its inadequate specifications and restricted view of individuals’ utility function
  • Higher values than social welfare, such as equality, are highlighted as criticisms of utilitarianism
  • Utilitarianism is defended against criticisms by Bernard Williams and standard moral rules in dealing with dilemmas
  • The relationship between Confucian and care ethics is rejected, emphasizing that ren (benevolence) is not the uppermost value in Confucianism
  • Confucian ethics emphasizes four virtues: ren (benevolence), li (ritual propriety), yi (righteousness), and zhi (wisdom), with no priority placed on any
  • Care ethics is about the other, not the carer, and can lead to the carer doing the absurd
  • Confucian ethics cannot be reduced to care ethics, as caring is only a part of it and does not pursue universal principles

Test your knowledge of ethical theories by comparing and contrasting Utilitarianism and Confucian Ethics. Explore the criticisms, defenses, and key principles of each theory.

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