Understanding Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

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30 Questions

ARDS is a spectrum of disease that progresses from mild to moderate to its most severe form.

True

Acute lung injury is a term used to describe moderate ARDS.

False

ARDS is characterized by an elevated left atrial pressure.

False

ARDS has been associated with a mortality rate ranging from 15% to 30%.

False

Inflammatory triggers in ARDS cause injury to the alveolar capillary membrane.

True

Blood returning to the lung for gas exchange is pumped through the ventilated, functioning areas of the lung.

False

ARDS closely resembles mild pulmonary edema in its clinical manifestations.

False

The acute phase of ARDS is marked by a gradual onset of severe dyspnea.

False

ARDS is classified based on the severity of hypoxemia, with mild ARDS having PaO2/FIO2 ratio > 300 mm Hg.

False

Findings on chest x-ray in ARDS are visible as unilateral infiltrates that quickly improve.

False

Patients in ARDS may have increased alveolar dead space due to poor ventilation and perfusion mismatch.

True

In ARDS, patients typically have increased pulmonary compliance, making it easy to ventilate their lungs.

False

Intercostal retractions and crackles are common physical examination findings in patients with ARDS.

True

Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are not useful in distinguishing ARDS from cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

False

Transthoracic echocardiography is always the first-choice diagnostic test for patients with potential ARDS.

False

What is a common physical examination finding in patients with ARDS as mentioned in the text?

Intercostal retractions

Which diagnostic test is helpful in distinguishing ARDS from cardiogenic pulmonary edema?

Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels

What is a key characteristic of the patient in the recovery phase of ARDS?

Improved pulmonary compliance

What do patients with ARDS typically experience in terms of alveolar dead space?

Increased alveolar dead space due to poor perfusion

What issue do patients with ARDS commonly face in terms of pulmonary compliance?

Stiff lungs with decreased pulmonary compliance

What is a common symptom seen in patients with ARDS?

Hypoxemia unresponsive to oxygen supplementation

Which factor is NOT associated with the development of ARDS?

Hypertension

What is a significant complication that patients with ARDS may die from?

Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP)

Which term is commonly used to describe mild ARDS?

Acute lung injury

What structural damage occurs in the lungs of patients with ARDS due to inflammatory triggers?

Alveolar capillary membrane thickening

What is the main reason for the severe, refractory hypoxemia in ARDS?

Decreased lung compliance

How does ARDS differ from cardiogenic pulmonary edema in terms of arterial hypoxemia?

ARDS experiences hypoxemia that does not respond to supplemental oxygen

Which characteristic finding on chest x-ray is common in both ARDS and cardiogenic pulmonary edema?

Visible bilateral infiltrates

How is ARDS classified based on the severity of hypoxemia?

Severe ARDS: PaO2/FIO2 ratio ≤ 100 mm Hg

What happens to mild ARDS as it progresses?

It develops into fibrosing alveolitis with persistent, severe hypoxemia

Learn about the spectrum of ARDS, from mild to severe, and the clinical characteristics associated with it. Understand the severe inflammatory process causing diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary edema seen in ARDS.

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