Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands

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Which formula is used to calculate the volume of each lobe of the thyroid gland?

Ellipsoid formula

What is the appearance of the esophagus compared to the thyroid gland in a transverse section?

Hypoechoic walls and hyperechoic mucosa

What is the material that fills the thyroid follicles called?

Colloid

Which arteries supply the thyroid gland with blood?

Superior thyroid artery and inferior thyroid artery

Describe the location of the parathyroid gland.

Posterior to the thyroid gland

What are the measurements of the parathyroid gland?

5.0-7.0 mm in length, 1.0-2.0 mm in height, 3.0-4.0 mm in width

What is the echogenicity of the parathyroid glands compared with the thyroid gland?

Isoechoic

What hormone is secreted by the parathyroid gland?

Parathormone (PTH)

Which arteries supply the parathyroid glands?

Superior and inferior thyroid arteries

What is the most common cause of thyroid gland enlargement?

Iodine deficiency

Which hormones does the thyroid gland secrete?

Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin

How is the thyroid hormone secretion regulated?

Controlled by the pituitary gland which secretes TSH

What are the lobes of the thyroid gland?

Right and left lobes, connected by the isthmus

What structures border the thyroid gland anteriorly, posteriorly, and laterally?

Strap muscles, Longus colli muscle, Trachea, Common carotid artery

What are the measurements of the thyroid gland and the isthmus in adults?

Each lobe: 40-60 mm length x 15-20 mm width x 13-18 mm thickness (AP), Isthmus: 2-6 mm AP diameter

How is the echogenicity and vascularity of the thyroid gland described?

Uniformly echogenic, with medium- to high-level echoes

What hormones does the parathyroid gland secrete?

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

What is the function of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

Increase blood calcium level

How many lobes does the parathyroid gland have?

Four

Which hormones does the parathyroid gland secrete?

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Describe the location of the parathyroid gland.

Posterior to the thyroid gland

What is the appearance of the esophagus compared to the thyroid gland in a transverse section?

Hypoechoic

What are the measurements of the parathyroid gland?

2 to 6 mm AP diameter

How is the echogenicity and vascularity of the thyroid gland described?

Uniformly echogenic, with medium- to high-level echoes

What are the functions of the thyroid gland's hormones?

Stimulates cellular metabolism

What are the lobes of the thyroid gland?

Right lobe and left lobe

What structures border the thyroid gland anteriorly, posteriorly, and laterally?

Strap muscles anteriorly, Longus colli muscle posteriorly, Trachea laterally

Which formula is used to calculate the volume of each lobe of the thyroid gland?

Ellipsoid formula with a correction factor

What is the appearance of the esophagus compared to the thyroid gland in a transverse section?

Hypoechoic walls and hyperechoic mucosa

What is the material that fills the thyroid follicles called?

Colloid

Which arteries supply the thyroid gland with blood, and where do they originate from?

Superior thyroid artery from the ECA, and inferior thyroid artery from the thyrocervical trunk

Describe the location of the parathyroid gland.

Two superior parathyroid glands lie posterior to superior poles of thyroid; two inferior lie posterior to inferior poles of the thyroid gland

What are the measurements of the parathyroid gland?

5.0-7.0 mm in length, 1.0-2.0 mm in height, 3.0-4.0 mm in width

What is the echogenicity of the parathyroid glands compared with the thyroid gland?

Similar in echogenicity to thyroid, and are not generally identified with ultrasound unless they are abnormal

What hormone is secreted by the parathyroid gland? Explain the function of the hormone.

Parathormone (PTH). It increases blood calcium level by three mechanisms: increasing the breakdown of bone matrix to release the calcium to the blood, increasing the reabsorption of calcium from the renal tubules to the blood, and increasing the absorption of calcium from the intestines to the blood via vitamin D

Which muscles are located anterior and lateral to the thyroid gland?

Strap muscles

Which muscle is seen posterior to the thyroid gland?

Longus colli muscle

What forms the lateral border of the thyroid gland?

Trachea

Which structures are posterolateral to the thyroid gland?

CCA and IJV

How are nodules classified?

Hot or cold nodules

What is a hot nodule?

A nodule that traps an excessive amount of isotope and is hyperfunctioning

What is a cold nodule?

A nodule that does not absorb isotope and demonstrates an area of decreased or absent activity

Which veins drain into the IJV?

Superior & Middle thyroid vein

What is the function of the IJV?

B. Drains blood from the head and neck region

Which veins drain into the brachiocephalic veins?

Inferior thyroid veins

What is the function of the thyroid gland's hormones?

Metabolism regulation

What is the appearance of the thyroid gland compared to the esophagus in a transverse section?

Hypoechoic compared to the esophagus

Where is the parotid gland located?

In the retromandibular fossa

What is the function of the parotid gland?

Production of saliva

Which is the largest salivary gland?

Parotid gland

Which hormone stimulates the kidneys to convert vitamin D into its active form?

A. PTH

How does PTH regulate calcium levels in the extracellular fluid?

A. By increasing the release of calcium from bones

What is the main function of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

A. Regulating calcium and phosphorous levels in extracellular fluid

Which of the following is NOT a function of the parotid glands?

Produce PTH

What is the role of the parotid glands in the digestion process?

Produce saliva that moistens the food

How do the parotid glands facilitate swallowing?

By producing saliva that helps in lubricating the food

Where is TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) produced?

Anterior pituitary gland

What is the role of TSH in the body?

Regulates metabolism, growth, and development

Which endocrine gland does TSH primarily target?

Thyroid gland

Which cells are the primary source for the production of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

Chief cells

Where are the chief cells located?

Parathyroid glands

What is the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the body?

Regulating calcium and phosphate levels

Which thyroid condition is associated with a deficiency in iodine?

Goiter

What is the function of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the body?

Regulating blood calcium levels

Which arteries supply the thyroid gland with blood?

Carotid arteries

Which hormone is responsible for increasing blood calcium levels and decreasing blood phosphorus levels?

B. PTH

Which gland secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

D. Parathyroid gland

What is the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the body?

B. Regulating blood calcium and phosphorus levels

Test your knowledge on the anatomy and physiology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Answer questions about the hormones secreted by the thyroid gland and their functions, including the role of calcitonin in regulating calcium levels.

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