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Thalamic Nuclei and Functional Organization

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Lynn abi aad
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80 Questions

Qual es le nucleo thalamic que riceve impulses desde le corpo mamillare e hippocepo?

Nucleo anterior

Quale es le function del nucleo posterior?

Processar informationes visuales

Qual es le nucleo thalamic que processa informationes olfactive?

Nucleo medial

Quale es le organo que envia impulses al nucleo geniculate medial?

Colliculo inferior

Qual es le function del nucleo intralaminar?

Diffunder informationes a tote le cortex cerebral

Quale es le nucleo thalamic que envia informationes al cortex auditiv?

Nucleo geniculate lateral

Qual es le function del nucleo ventral lateral?

Regulater le fonctiones motoras

Quale es le nucleo thalamic que riceve impulses desde le globus pallidus?

Nucleo ventral anterior

Qual es le tipo de nuclei que projeta a areas specific del cortex cerebral?

Nuclei Specific

Quale es le nuclei que non projeta al cortex cerebral ipsilateral?

Nuclei Reticular

Qual es le function del nuclei PLVN?

Relay de impulsos sensorial al cortex sensory

Quale es le gruppo de nuclei que contiene le nuclei Pulvinar?

Tire Dorsal

Qual es le conexion del nuclei LGB?

Optic tract - optic radiation and visual cortex

Quale es le function del nuclei MGB?

Relay de impulsos auditiv al cortex auditiv

Qual es le grupo de nuclei que contiene le nuclei Anterior Ventral?

Tire Ventral

Quale es le function del nuclei Anterior?

Processamento del information del cingulate gyrus

Qual es le parte del sistema limbic que es responsabile pro le emociones e le responsas emotional?

Limbic lobe

Quale es le nucleo thalamic que es connecte al hypothalamus?

Nucleo anterior thalamic

Qual es le function principal del sistema limbic?

Regular le emociones e le responsas emotional

Quale es le parte del sistema limbic que es responsabile pro le olfaction?

Olfactory system

Qual es le parte del sistema limbic que es connecte al cortex cerebral?

Limbic cortex

Quale es le function del nucleo habenular?

Processar le informationes olfactive

Qual es le parte del sistema limbic que es responsabile pro le memoria?

Hippocampus

Quale es le parte del sistema limbic que es connecte al hypothalamus?

Mammillary body

Quale es le nucleo del thalamo que es involve in emotiones e motivationes?

Anterior Nucleus

Quale es le structura del systema limbic que es frequentemente damagiate in epilepsia?

Hippocampo

Quale es le function del systema limbic in relation a emotiones?

Emotiones e motivationes relacionate a survive

Quale es le nucleo del thalamo que es le principal pathway efferent al hippocampo?

Fornix

Quale es le zona del plaisir in le systema limbic?

Septal Nuclei

Quale es le nucleo del thalamo que es involve in le processamento del information olfactive?

Dorsal Nucleus

Quale es le structura del systema limbic que es frequentemente damagiate in le Alzheimer's disease?

Hippocampo

Quale es le function del hypothalamus in le systema limbic?

Regulation del corpore temperature

Quale parte del corpo es le massa nuclear maxime grande?

Thalamus

Quale function es attribuite al thalamus?

Relayar e mandar information al cortex cerebrali

Quale structura es connectite al thalamus del latere opposite?

Interthalamic connexus

Quale parte del thalamus forma un projection nominate Pulvinar?

Posterior end

Quale parte del thalamus es coverite per le externa medullary lamina?

Lateral surface

Quale grupo de nuclei es subdividite per le interna medullary lamina?

Anterior, medial, lateral

Quale sistema del cerebro es relate al thalamus?

Sistema limbic

Quale tipo de fibers es trovate in le interna medullary lamina?

Afferent e efferent

Which of the following nuclei is classified as a Specific Nucleus?

Lateral Dorsal nucleus

What type of nuclei project to specific areas in cerebral cortex?

Specific Nuclei

Which of the following nuclei is a Circuit Relay Nucleus?

Anterior Ventral nucleus

How many nuclei are in each group of the classification of thalamic nuclei according to their projections?

4

What is the name of the nucleus that receives impulses from the optic tract and projects to the visual cortex?

Lateral Geniculate Body

Which of the following nuclei is NOT a Sensory Relay Nucleus?

Anterior Ventral nucleus

What is the name of the tier that contains the Ventral Anterior, Ventral Lateral, and Ventral Posterior nuclei?

Ventral tier

Which of the following nuclei does NOT project to the ipsilateral cerebral cortex?

Reticular nucleus

Which thalamic nucleus is involved in the processing of olfactory information?

Mediodorsal Nucleus

Which structure is frequently damaged in temporal lobe epilepsy?

Hippocampus

Which of the following is NOT a function of the limbic system?

Motor control

What is the principal efferent pathway to the hippocampus?

Fornix

Which thalamic nucleus is involved in emotions and motivations?

Mediodorsal Nucleus

What is the function of the habenular nuclei?

Pleasure and reward

Which structure is damaged in Alzheimer's disease?

Hippocampus

What is the pleasure zone in the limbic system?

Septal Nuclei

What is the function of the lateral posterior nucleus?

Sending processed information to the occipital, parietal, and temporal association areas

Which of the following nuclei is classified as a specific nucleus?

Medial geniculate nucleus

What is the function of the ventral lateral nucleus?

Sending processed information to the primary motor cortex

Which of the following nuclei is classified as an associative nucleus?

Lateral dorsal nucleus

What is the function of the posterior nucleus?

Sending processed information to the primary somatosensory cortex

Which of the following nuclei receives impulses from the mamillary body and hippocampus?

Anterior nucleus

What is the function of the intralaminar nucleus?

Sending processed information to the cerebral cortex and stratum

Which of the following nuclei is classified as a specific nucleus and relays auditory information?

Medial geniculate nucleus

What is the primary function of the limbic system?

Regulation of emotions, motivations, and memories

Which structure is responsible for the relay of sensory information to the cortex?

Dorsal thalamic nuclei

What is the classification of the anterior thalamic nucleus?

Specific nucleus

Which nucleus is involved in the processing of olfactory information?

Habenular nucleus

What is the function of the limbic lobe?

Regulation of emotions and motivations

Which nucleus is connected to the hypothalamus?

Mammillary body

What is the function of the hippocampal formation?

Formation of memories

Which structure is involved in the relay of auditory information?

Medial geniculate nucleus

Which nucleus is classified as a Specific Nucleus?

Ventrobasal complex

What type of nuclei project to specific areas in cerebral cortex?

Specific Nuclei

Which of the following nuclei is a Circuit Relay Nucleus?

Reticular nucleus

How many nuclei are in each group of the classification of thalamic nuclei according to their projections?

5-10

What is the name of the nucleus that receives impulses from the optic tract and projects to the visual cortex?

Lateral geniculate

Which of the following nuclei is NOT a Sensory Relay Nucleus?

Reticular nucleus

What is the name of the tier that contains the Ventral Anterior, Ventral Lateral, and Ventral Posterior nuclei?

Tier 1

Which of the following nuclei does NOT project to the ipsilateral cerebral cortex?

Reticular nucleus

Study Notes

Functional Organization of Thalamic Nuclei

  • Associative nuclei: receive impulses from other thalamic nuclei, process information, and send it to the association areas of the cerebral cortex
  • Examples of associative nuclei:
    • Part of dorsomedial nucleus
    • Pulvinar
    • Lateral dorsal nucleus
    • Lateral posterior nucleus

Thalamic Nuclei Functions

  • Anterior nucleus: association; receives inputs from mamillary body and hippocampus, sends outputs to cingulate cortex
  • Medial nuclear group: association; receives inputs from amygdala, olfactory cortex, and hippocampus, sends outputs to prefrontal cortex and hippocampus
  • Lateral dorsal nucleus: association; receives inputs from amygdala, olfactory cortex, and hippocampus, sends outputs to cingulate cortex and other limbic regions
  • Lateral posterior nucleus: association; receives inputs from superior colliculus and pretectum, sends outputs to occipital, parietal, and temporal association areas

Specific Nuclei

  • Medial geniculate nucleus: specific nucleus; receives inputs from inferior colliculus, sends outputs to primary auditory cortex
  • Lateral geniculate nucleus: specific nucleus; receives inputs from left and right eyes (optic tract), sends outputs to primary visual cortex
  • Posteromedial ventral nucleus: specific nucleus; receives inputs from trigeminothalamic tract, sends outputs to primary somatosensory cortex
  • Posterolateral ventral nucleus: specific nucleus; receives inputs from medial and spinal lemnisci, sends outputs to primary somatosensory cortex

Thalamus Structure

  • Divided into two oval masses of grey matter
  • Relays and sends received information to the cerebral cortex
  • Axons from every sensory system (except olfaction) synapse in the thalamus as the last relay site before the information reaches the cerebral cortex

Thalamus Surfaces and Relations

  • Lateral surface: related to the posterior limb of the internal capsule
  • Medial surface: related to the 3rd ventricle
  • Superior surface: related to the fornix and lateral ventricle
  • Inferior surface: related to the hypothalamus and subthalamus

Internal Structure of Thalamus

  • External medullary lamina: covers the lateral surface of the thalamus, consists of thalamocortical and corticothalamic fibers
  • Internal medullary lamina: bundle of Y-shaped myelinated fibers, divides the thalamus into anterior, medial, and lateral nuclear groups

Lateral Nuclear Group

  • Divided into dorsal and ventral tiers
  • Dorsal tier: contains lateral dorsal, lateral posterior, and pulvinar nuclei
  • Ventral tier: contains ventral anterior, ventral lateral, ventral posterior, medial geniculate, and lateral geniculate nuclei

Functional Organization of Thalamic Nuclei

  • All thalamic nuclei project to the ipsilateral cerebral cortex, except reticular nucleus
  • Precise point-to-point projections sometimes found between individual thalamic nuclei and restricted cortical zones

Classification of Thalamic Nuclei

  • Classified into three groups: simple sensory relay nuclei, circuit relay nuclei, and diffuse nuclei
  • Simple sensory relay nuclei: receive sensory impulses and relay them to the sensory cortex
  • Circuit relay nuclei: receive impulses from different areas of CNS and relay them to specific areas in cerebral cortex

Limbic System

  • Set of brain structures including cortical structures, subcortical structures, and olfactory system
  • Main functions: control of emotions, emotional responses, behavior, mood, motivation, memory, and visceral and motor responses involved in survival

Limbic System Structures

  • Limbic cortex or limbic lobe
  • Hippocampus and hippocampal formation
  • Amygdala
  • Anterior thalamic nuclei
  • Hypothalamus (mammillary body)
  • Septum
  • Fornix
  • Olfactory system
  • Habenular nuclei

Organisation del Thalamo

  • Le thalamo es dividite in duo tieres: dorsal e ventral
  • Le tier dorsal contains:
    • Lateral dorsal (LD)
    • Lateral posterior (LP)
    • Pulvinar
  • Le tier ventral contains:
    • Ventral anterior (VA)
    • Ventral lateral (VL)
    • Ventral posterior (VP)
    • Medial geniculate nucleus
    • Lateral geniculate nucleus

Functional Organisation del Thalamo

  • Omne thalamic nuclei projecta al cortex cerebral ipsilateral, excepto le nucleus reticular
  • Precise projections point-to-point sono trovate inter individual thalamic nuclei e zonas cortical restricted
  • Le nuclei specific lie dentro le tier ventral del grupo nuclear lateral

Classification del Thalamo

  • Le nuclei thalamic peuvent essere classificate in tre gruppos, cada uno con quatro nuclei:
    • A) Simple Sensory Relay Nuclei:
      • Receive impulses sensory, e relay them to le cortex sensory
      • Include: PLVN, PMVN, LGB, MGB
    • B) Circuit Relay Nuclei:
      • Receive impulses from different areas del CNS, e relay them to specific areas del cortex cerebral
      • Include: Lateral ventral nucleus, anterior ventral nucleus, anterior nucleus, part del dorsomedial nucleus
    • C) Associative Nuclei:
      • Receive impulses from other nuclei thalamic, e send information processed to le areas del cortex cerebral
      • Include: part del dorsomedial nucleus, pulvinar, lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus

Functional Organisation del Nuclei Thalamic

  • Anterior nucleus:
    • Function: association
    • Inputs: mamillary body, hippocampus
    • Outputs: cingulate cortex
  • Medial nuclear group:
    • Function: association
    • Inputs: amygdala, olfactory cortex, hippocampus
    • Outputs: prefrontal cortex, hippocampus
  • Lateral dorsal nucleus:
    • Function: association
    • Inputs: amygdala, olfactory cortex, hippocampus
    • Outputs: cingulate cortex, other limbic regions
  • ... (continua con le other nuclei)

Systema Limbic

  • Definition: un set de structuras del cerebro evolutionariamente primitive, locate sur le brainstem, e buriate sub le cortex
  • Functiones: involve emotions, motivations, sensations de pleasure, e memoria
  • Partes del systema limbic:
    • Cortical structures: limbic lobe, hippocampal formation, septal areas, prefrontal area
    • Subcortical structures: hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, hypothalamus, septum, fornix, olfactory system
    • Olactory system: olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, olfactory cortex

Hippocampo

  • Location: parte del systema limbic
  • Function: involvement in memoria, emotions, e comportamento
  • Lesions: associate con loss de memoria, e alteration de comportamento

This quiz covers the different thalamic nuclei, their functions, and their connections to other brain regions. It includes associative nuclei and their roles in processing information.

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