Hemodynamics I

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30 Questions

Which of the following is a cause of generalized tissue and organ edema?

Reduced plasma osmotic pressure

Which protein is the major contributor to plasma osmotic pressure?

Albumin

Which condition can result in systemic edema due to inadequate levels of circulating protein?

All of the above

What is the primary cause of lymphatic obstruction?

Primary neoplasms

What is the term used to describe the passive back-up of blood due to venous obstruction?

Congestion

What is the consequence of long-standing (chronic) congestion?

Cell death

What causes an increase in volume of blood in hyperemia?

Arteriolar dilation

Which of the following is responsible for maintenance of homeostasis in the body?

All of the above

Which term refers to an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces?

Edema

What is the main cause of edema resulting from increased hydrostatic pressure?

Reduced plasma oncotic pressure

What is the term used to describe an abnormal increase in blood flow to a particular tissue or organ?

Hyperemia

What is the main difference between acute and chronic passive congestion?

Acute congestion is characterized by red blood cell extravasation, while chronic congestion is characterized by fibrosis

What is the term used to describe the escape of blood from the blood vessels into the surrounding tissues?

Hemorrhage

What is the term used to describe a small, pinpoint hemorrhage?

Petechiae

Which of the following is a cause of edema?

All of the above

What is the function of the lymphatic system in relation to edema?

To remove excess fluid from the interstitial space

What is the relationship between hydrostatic pressure and fluid movement?

Increases in hydrostatic pressure cause fluid to move out of the vessel

What is the consequence of failure in any part of the system that regulates fluid movement?

Edema

Which condition can lead to localized edema in a limb?

Blockage of venous outflow

What is the cause of systemic increases in hydrostatic pressure?

Cardiac failure

What is the physiological response to decreased arterial flow to the kidney in cardiac failure?

Increased aldosterone secretion

Which of the following is a characteristic of acute pulmonary congestion?

Collection of edematous fluid within the alveolar spaces

Which of the following is a unique gross morphology seen in chronic passive congestion of the liver?

Nutmeg liver

Which of the following is a type of hemorrhage characterized by pinpoint lesions on serosal surfaces and skin?

Petechial hemorrhage

What is the size range of purpura lesions?

3-5 mm

What is the term used to describe larger lesions (larger than 1 cm) that occur in subcutaneous tissues and are commonly called bruises?

Ecchymosis

What is the color sequence of a resolving bruise?

Blue-red, blue-green, yellow-brown

What is a large collection of blood that may form in any area of the body called?

Hematoma

What is the clinical significance of a hemorrhage not always directly proportional to?

Volume

What can a rapid loss of 20% of one's blood volume lead to?

Hypovolemic shock

This quiz tests your knowledge of the hemodynamics of impaired venous return and its effects on systemic venous pressures and organ edema. Explore the causes and consequences of reduced plasma osmotic pressure.

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