quiz image

Immunity

RejoicingSuccess avatar
RejoicingSuccess
·
·
Download

Start Quiz

Study Flashcards

71 Questions

What is the primary function of the lymphatic system in relation to interstitial fluid?

To drain interstitial fluid back into the blood

Which of the following is NOT a function of the lymphatic system?

Producing antibodies

What is edema caused by, aside from parasitic infections?

Hypertension, venous obstruction, or protein buildup in interstitial fluids

What is the result of blocking a lymphatic duct?

Fluid buildup in tissues, leading to swelling or edema

What is the role of lymph nodes in the lymphatic system?

To filter out contaminants from lymph fluid

What is the function of lymph organs in the lymphatic system?

To contain leukocytes that screen tissue fluid for contaminants

What is the effect of hypertension on tissue fluid balance?

It forces fluid out of blood vessels into tissues, causing edema

What is the result of a venous obstruction, such as a blood clot?

Blockage of the flow of blood, causing fluid buildup in tissues

What is the primary component of the lymphatic system that drains into lymph nodes?

Lymph vessels

What is the term for the fluid that bathes the cells of tissues?

Interstitial fluid

Match the following lymphatic system components with their descriptions:

Lymph vessels = Open vessels that open up into the tissues and drain into lymph nodes Lymph nodes = Found in areas like the armpit and groin Lymph organs = Include the thymus and spleen, containing leukocytes like B cells, T cells, and macrophages Lymph fluid = The fluid that bathes the cells of tissues

Match the following components with their roles in the lymphatic system:

Lymph vessels = Drain into lymph nodes and return interstitial fluid to the blood Lymph nodes = Filter out contaminants from tissue fluid and drain into lymph vessels Lymph organs = Screen tissue fluid for contaminants and contain leukocytes like B cells, T cells, and macrophages Lymph fluid = Bathes the cells of tissues and is drained by lymph vessels

What is the primary function of the immune system?

To defend the body against pathogens

What is the main difference between bacteria and viruses?

Bacteria are extracellular, while viruses are intracellular

How do viruses replicate?

By using the host cell's machinery

What are the two major categories of the immune system?

Innate immunity and acquired immunity

What is the function of innate immunity?

To provide a built-in, non-specific defense mechanism

What is the function of acquired immunity?

To defend the body against specific pathogens

What is the role of B cells in acquired immunity?

To produce antibodies specific to particular pathogens

What is the primary difference between innate and acquired immunity?

Innate immunity is non-specific, while acquired immunity is specific

How do viruses cause cell death or explosion?

By using the host cell's machinery to replicate

What is the primary function of antibiotics?

To treat bacterial infections

Match the following types of immunity with their descriptions:

Innate immunity = Present from birth Acquired immunity = Involves B cells and T cells

Match the following components of the immune system with their characteristics:

Skin = Physical mechanical barrier Mucous membranes = Physical barrier B cells = Produce antibodies T cells = Non-specific immune cells

What is the main function of the skin and mucous membranes in the human body?

To trap and fight against pathogens

What is the purpose of lysozyme in sweat?

To break down bacteria

What is the role of oil produced by the skin?

To produce acidic substances

What is the function of mucus produced by mucous membranes?

To trap pathogens

What is the result of a low-grade fever?

An increase in immune response

What is the purpose of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?

To help with protein digestion and defend against invaders

What are the types of immune cells that make up the second line of defense?

Monocytes, macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, and basophils

What is the purpose of the tightly packed epithelial cells in the skin and mucous membranes?

To prevent bacteria and pathogens from entering deeper layers

What is the role of secretions produced by the skin and mucous membranes?

To help fight against pathogens

What is the primary function of the first line of defense in the human body?

To prevent pathogens from entering the body

Match the following components of the first line of defense with their functions:

Skin = Produces oil that is broken down into acidic substances to prevent harmful pathogens Mucous membranes = Produces mucus to trap pathogens Sweat = Has a washing action and is salty, inhibiting the growth of pathogens Stomach = Produces hydrochloric acid to help with protein digestion and defend against invaders

Match the following components of the immune system with their characteristics:

Innate immunity = Non-specific and fights against a variety of pathogens Acquired immunity = Specific and fights against specific pathogens Epithelial cells = Tightly packed to prevent bacteria and pathogens from entering deeper layers Lysozyme = Breaks down bacteria

Match the following secretions with their functions:

Sweat = Has a washing action and is salty, inhibiting the growth of pathogens Oil = Broken down into acidic substances to prevent harmful pathogens Mucus = Traps pathogens Hydrochloric acid = Helps with protein digestion and defends against invaders

Match the following components of the skin and mucous membranes with their functions:

Epithelial cells = Prevent bacteria and pathogens from entering deeper layers Sweat glands = Produce sweat that has a washing action and is salty, inhibiting the growth of pathogens Oil glands = Produce oil that is broken down into acidic substances to prevent harmful pathogens Mucous glands = Produce mucus to trap pathogens

Match the following components with their characteristics:

Skin = Has multiple layers of epithelial cells Mucous membranes = Produce mucus to trap pathogens Epithelial cells = Tightly packed to prevent bacteria and pathogens from entering deeper layers Stomach = Produces hydrochloric acid to help with protein digestion and defend against invaders

What is the primary function of acquired immunity?

Targeting specific strains of pathogens or foreign material

How do B cells respond to pathogens?

By releasing antibodies that bind to antigens on the surface of pathogens

What is the role of T cells in acquired immunity?

Stimulating infected body cells to undergo apoptosis

What is the result of the primary response to a new pathogen?

A slow response due to the need to find the correct B cell or T cell to fit with a lock and key onto the pathogen

What is the purpose of clonal expansion?

To produce a rapid and robust response to a specific pathogen

How do antibodies inactivate toxins?

By binding to and neutralizing the toxins

What is the role of innate immunity?

Providing a generalized response to pathogens

What is the result of B cells and T cells providing immunological memory?

A rapid and robust response to subsequent exposures to the same pathogen

What is unique about B cells and T cells?

They are specific and can only respond to specific pathogens

What is the difference between B cells and T cells?

B cells produce antibodies and T cells stimulate infected body cells to undergo apoptosis

Match the following components of the immune system with their functions:

B cells = Produce antibodies that bind to antigens on the surface of pathogens T cells = Latch onto infected body cells and stimulate them to undergo apoptosis Innate immunity = Provide a generalized response to pathogens Acquired immunity = Provide a specific type of immunity that targets particular strains of pathogens

Match the following types of immune responses with their characteristics:

Innate immunity = First and second line of defense against pathogens Acquired immunity = Third line of defense against pathogens Primary response = Slow due to the need to find the correct B cell or T cell Immunological memory = Rapid and robust response to subsequent exposures to the same pathogen

Match the following components of the immune system with their effects:

B cells and T cells = Provide immunological memory Antibodies = Inactivate toxins by binding to them Killer T cells = Destroy infected body cells and prevent viral replication Clonal expansion = Producing many cells of the same variety to fight the pathogen

Match the following components of the immune system with their roles:

B cells = Produce antibodies that bind to antigens on the surface of pathogens T cells = Latch onto infected body cells and stimulate them to undergo apoptosis Innate immune cells = Destroy pathogens tagged by antibodies Acquired immunity = Provide a specific type of immunity that targets particular strains of pathogens

Match the following components of the immune system with their effects on pathogens:

Antibodies = Clump pathogens together and tag them for destruction Killer T cells = Destroy infected body cells and prevent viral replication Innate immune cells = Destroy pathogens tagged by antibodies B cells and T cells = Provide immunological memory

Match the following processes of the immune system with their characteristics:

Primary response = Slow due to the need to find the correct B cell or T cell Clonal expansion = Producing many cells of the same variety to fight the pathogen Immunological memory = Rapid and robust response to subsequent exposures to the same pathogen Acquired immunity = Specific type of immunity that targets particular strains of pathogens

What is the primary difference between passive and active acquired immunity?

The duration of protection

What is the result of herd immunity in a population?

Reduced likelihood of contact with the pathogen

What is the function of antibodies in breast milk?

To provide short-term protection

What is the role of memory cells in active acquired immunity?

To provide long-term protection

What is the purpose of vaccination?

To train the immune system to provide a rapid and robust secondary immune response

What type of immunity is achieved through natural exposure to a pathogen?

Active acquired immunity

What is the function of anti-toxins in clinical settings?

To neutralize toxins

What is the role of B cells and T cells in active acquired immunity?

To activate the adaptive immune system

What is the difference between natural and clinical passive acquired immunity?

Source of antibodies

What is the result of a large percentage of the population being immunized?

Reduced likelihood of contact with the pathogen

Match the following types of immunity with their characteristics:

Active acquired immunity = Provides long-term protection due to the presence of memory cells Passive acquired immunity = Provides short-term protection with no immunological memory Herd immunity = Occurs when a large percentage of the population is immunized Innate immunity = Provides immediate, non-specific defense against pathogens

Match the following scenarios with the type of immunity they demonstrate:

A fetus receiving antibodies from the mother = Passive acquired immunity A person receiving a vaccination = Active acquired immunity A community with a high percentage of immunized individuals = Herd immunity A person's skin and mucous membranes defending against pathogens = Innate immunity

Match the following terms with their effects on the immune system:

Immunological memory = Provides long-term protection Memory cells = Triggers a rapid and robust secondary immune response Antitoxins = Provides short-term protection against toxins Herd immunity = Reduces the likelihood of contact with pathogens

Match the following components with their roles in passive acquired immunity:

Antibodies in breast milk = Provides short-term protection to breastfed babies Antitoxins = Provides short-term protection against toxins Mother's antibodies = Provides short-term protection to the fetus Memory cells = Triggers a rapid and robust secondary immune response

Match the following scenarios with the type of immunity they demonstrate:

A person's immune system responding to a primary exposure to a pathogen = Active acquired immunity A person receiving antibodies from another source = Passive acquired immunity A community with a high percentage of immunized individuals = Herd immunity A person's skin and mucous membranes defending against pathogens = Innate immunity

Match the following terms with their descriptions:

Immunological memory = The ability of the immune system to remember specific pathogens Memory cells = Cells that remain in the body after an initial immune response Herd immunity = A form of immunity that occurs when a large percentage of the population is immunized Innate immunity = A non-specific defense against pathogens that is present from birth

Study Notes

  • The lymphatic system consists of lymph vessels, lymph nodes, lymph organs, and lymph fluid.
  • Lymph vessels are open vessels that open up into the tissues and drain into lymph nodes, which are found in areas like the armpit and groin.
  • Lymph organs include the thymus and spleen, which contain leukocytes like B cells, T cells, and macrophages that screen tissue fluid.
  • The lymphatic system returns interstitial fluid to the blood, transports fat from the small intestine to the blood, and screens tissue fluid for contaminants.
  • Interstitial fluid is the fluid that bathes the cells of tissues, and if it builds up, it needs to be returned to the blood.
  • Blocking a lymphatic duct can cause fluid buildup in tissues, leading to swelling or edema.
  • Edema can be caused by parasitic infections like elephantiasis, which blocks lymphatic ducts, or by other factors like hypertension, venous obstruction, or protein buildup in interstitial fluids.
  • Edema can cause pronounced fluid buildup in individuals, especially in tropical regions where parasitic infections are common.
  • In the United States, edema is more commonly caused by conditions like hypertension, venous obstruction, or protein buildup.
  • Hypertension can force fluid out of blood vessels into tissues, causing edema.
  • A venous obstruction, such as a blood clot, can block the flow of blood and cause fluid buildup in tissues.
  • Protein buildup in interstitial fluids can draw water into tissues, causing edema, which can occur in conditions like thyroid disorders.
  • A decrease in plasma protein can also cause edema, as the relative concentration of protein in tissues increases, drawing fluid into tissues.

Learn about the lymphatic system, its components, and its functions. Discover how it returns interstitial fluid to the blood and screens tissue fluid for contaminants. Understand the causes and consequences of edema, a condition characterized by fluid buildup in tissues.

Make Your Own Quizzes and Flashcards

Convert your notes into interactive study material.

Get started for free

More Quizzes Like This

The Lymphatic System
6 questions

The Lymphatic System

AttractiveCommonsense avatar
AttractiveCommonsense
Hemodynamics I
30 questions

Hemodynamics I

HonorableTsavorite avatar
HonorableTsavorite
Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser