1.1 Anatomy (Galvin)

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39 Questions

Which structure separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity?

Diaphragm

Which type of ribs are attached to the sternum by their costal cartilages?

True ribs

Which muscle is primarily responsible for quiet breathing at rest?

Diaphragm

Which layer covers the surface of the lungs and lines the walls of the thoracic cavity?

Parietal pleura

What is the structural alteration and implication of a pneumothorax?

Collapsed lung due to air in the pleural space

Which structure divides the thoracic cavity into three compartments: superior, anterior, and posterior?

Mediastinum

Which rib type is not attached to the sternum at all?

Floating ribs

Which blood vessels supply oxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygen exchange?

Pulmonary arteries

Which muscles are active during forced inspiration?

External intercostal muscles

What type of muscle activity do the intercostal muscles primarily exhibit?

Isometric

Which muscles facilitate active expiration by depressing the ribs?

Subcostal muscles

Which lung surface is related to the space between the lungs known as the mediastinum?

Mediastinal surface of the lungs

What is the mnemonic for the location of the pulmonary artery in relation to the primary bronchus?

RALS

Which vessels provide a dual blood supply to the lung tissue?

Bronchial arteries

Where do lymphatics arise in the vicinity of the lungs?

Terminal bronchioles

How many lobes does the right lung have?

Three

Which part of the respiratory system has no alveoli and transmits bulk flow?

Conducting airways

In which type of ribs do the 11th and 12th ribs have no sternal connection and end in the posterior abdominal musculature?

Floating ribs

What is the functional characteristic of the thoracic skeleton that allows movement for ventilation?

Flexibility

Which part of the sternum begins as hyaline cartilage and ossifies into bone after the age of 40?

Xiphoid process

What landmark correlates with T4-T5 vertebrae, the carina of the trachea, and serves as the border between the superior and inferior mediastina?

Sternal angle

Which part of the rib consists of a small elevation on a bone and houses veins, arteries, and nerves in its costal groove?

Tubercles

In which direction do adult ribs course from their thoracic vertebral articulation to their anterior sternal articulation?

Oblique, inferior

Which part of the respiratory system participates in gas exchange (diffusion) and has alveoli?

Respiratory airways

What is the function of the thin layer of pleural fluid?

Couples the visceral and parietal pleura which prevents alveolar collapse

Which nerve fibers supply the central portion of the diaphragmatic parietal pleura and the mediastinal parietal pleura?

Phrenic nerves

Which blood vessels supply the visceral pleura and drain into the pulmonary veins?

Bronchial arteries

What can disrupt the coupling of the parietal and visceral pleura and cause pulmonary collapse?

Entry of air into the pleural cavity

Where is the superior border of the mediastinum located?

Thoracic inlet

Which structures are contained in the superior mediastinum?

Trachea and great vessels

Which muscle is the primary muscle of inspiration?

Diaphragm

In which subdivision of the inferior mediastinum would you find part of the thymus or its remnant?

Anterior mediastinum

What is the venous return facilitated by the alternating contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm?

Venous return

What structures are contained in the posterior mediastinum?

Esophagus and carina/primary bronchi

What happens under abnormal conditions in an Ipsilateral diaphragm paralysis?

Only one hemi-diaphragm is incapacitated

What characterizes the Aortic foramen retrodiaphragmatic opening?

Retrodiaphragmatic opening

What is the source of the muscle fibers for the costal part of the diaphragm?

Inner surfaces of the lower six ribs

In which condition does a congenital defect occur when connective tissues of hemi-diaphragms do not fuse properly?

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

What nerves provide motor (efferent) and sensory (afferent) innervation to the diaphragm?

Phrenic nerves

Test your knowledge about the functions of the diaphragm in the respiratory system, including its role in respiration, venous return, and as a barrier in body cavities.

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