1.1 Respiratory System

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What is the function of the diaphragm in the respiratory system?

To facilitate breathing by creating pressure changes

Which alteration is most likely to have implications of a pneumothorax?

Puncture of the pleurae

Which type of ribs are known for their attachment directly to the sternum through cartilage?

True ribs

What is the function of the accessory muscles of respiration?

To aid in forced breathing during exercise or respiratory distress

What is contained within the superior mediastinum?

The esophagus, trachea, and part of the thymus gland

Which muscles does a runner use during active expiration?

Internal intercostals

Which ribs are most responsible for the pump-handle effect?

Vertebrosternal

Why would you not place bilateral interscalene brachial plexus blocks?

Risk of phrenic nerve damage

What disrupts the coupling of the parietal and visceral pleura and causes pulmonary collapse?

Pneumothorax

Which nerves supply the costal parietal pleura and the peripheral portion of diaphragmatic parietal pleura?

Intercostal nerves

Which muscle layer of the thoracic wall is active during eupnea or forced inspiration?

External intercostal muscles

Which muscle layer of the thoracic wall facilitates active expiration by depressing the ribs?

Internal and deep intercostal muscles

Which lung surface corresponds to its respective region of the chest and extends approximately 1 inch above the medial 1/3 of the clavicle?

Apex of the lungs

What is the thin layer of lung tissue located at the boundary where posterior costal and mediastinal surfaces meet?

Posterior border

How many lobes does the left lung have?

2

What is the mnemonic 'RALS' used for in relation to the hilum of the lung?

Location of pulmonary artery in relation to primary bronchus

Which vessels branch from the descending aorta and provide vascular supply to lung stroma?

Bronchial arteries

Where do lymphatics arise in the vicinity of the lungs?

At the level of the terminal bronchioles

Which muscle is primarily responsible for inspiration in the respiratory system?

Diaphragm

What causes a communication between the thoracic and abdominal cavity in congenital diaphragmatic hernia?

Improper fusion of connective tissues of hemi-diaphragms

Which nerve provides motor innervation to the entire diaphragm?

Phrenic nerve

What is the structure that the diaphragm's muscle fibers primarily pull upon when they concentrically contract?

Central tendon

Which muscle assists in inspiration by elevating the rib cage?

Sternocleidomastoid

In which vertebrae level is the esophageal hiatus located?

T10

What causes the dome (cupola) of the diaphragm to rise as high as the level of the 4th intercostal space at rest?

Recoil of lungs after expiration

What is a common side effect of an interscalene block?

Ipsilateral diaphragm paralysis

What is the primary muscle of inspiration in the respiratory system?

Diaphragm

Which part of the respiratory system has alveoli and participates in gas exchange?

Respiratory airways

What is the function of the thoracic skeleton?

To provide strength to protect organs of the thorax and allow movement for ventilation

Which ribs have no sternal connection and end in the posterior abdominal musculature?

Floating ribs

What is the orientation of the ribs in adults?

Oblique, inferior direction from their thoracic vertebral articulation to their anterior sternal articulation

What landmark correlates with the projected posteriorly T4-T5 vertebrae and the start and end of the aortic arch?

Manubriosternal joint

What is the functional characteristic of the sternum?

It provides strength to protect organs of the thorax and flexibility for ventilation

What lies between the head and tubercle of a typical rib?

Neck

What is the function of the thoracic inlet?

It is a narrow superior opening that allows the passage of air into the lungs

What are the characteristics of true ribs?

They attach directly to the sternum via their own costal cartilage

What joints do ribs articulate with posteriorly?

Thoracic vertebrae bodies

Test your knowledge of the functions of the diaphragm, the primary muscle of inspiration in the respiratory system. Explore its role in respiration, venous return, and as a barrier within the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.

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