Psychological Assessment and Diagnosis Fundamentals Quiz

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27 Questions

Which of the following factors can affect mental health by altering neurotransmitter levels?

Genetic variations

Which of the following is an example of a behavioural factor that can contribute to mental health problems?

Substance abuse

Which of the following is a developmental factor that can increase the risk of developing a mental health disorder later in life?

Attachment issues

Which of the following is an emotional and cognitive factor that can make an individual more prone to anxiety and depression?

High neuroticism

Which of the following is a biological factor that can contribute to the development of mental disorders?

Genetics

What is the principal of equifinality in the context of mental disorders?

There are multiple paths to a given outcome

Which of the following is an emotional and cognitive influence on the development of mental disorders?

Implicit memory

What is the difference between initiating factors and maintaining factors in the development of mental disorders?

Initiating factors explain why the problem persists, while maintaining factors explain what caused the problem

What is the goal of a behavioral assessment?

To observe target behaviors and determine factors influencing them

What is the difference between reliability and validity in assessment?

Reliability refers to the consistency of a measurement, while validity refers to the degree to which a technique measures what it is designed to measure

What are the ABCs of observation in a behavioral assessment?

Antecedents, behaviors, consequences

What is the purpose of a mental status exam?

To assess intellectual functioning and mood

Which edition of the DSM was heavily criticized for its poor reliability and loosely described categories based on psychoanalytic theory?

DSM-2

What is the difference between the idiographic and nomothetic strategies for diagnosing psychological disorders?

Idiographic focuses on unique individual characteristics, while nomothetic focuses on specific disorder identification

What is the prototypical approach to diagnosing psychological disorders?

Combines classical and dimensional views

What is the aim of the DSM-5?

To create changes that are supported by empirical evidence

Which of the following is a symptom of Social Anxiety Disorder?

Experiencing fear and avoidance of situations involving possible scrutiny by others

What is the BEST treatment for Specific Phobia?

Exposure therapy

What is the prevalence of Separation Anxiety Disorder in children?

4.1%

What is the most efficacious treatment for Selective Mutism?

CBT

What is the lifetime prevalence of panic disorder?

4.7%

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of panic attacks?

Fear of spiders

What is the prevalence of specific phobias?

12.5% (life)

What is the cognitive avoidance model of worry?

Worry prevents effective problem-solving and emotional processing of stressful stimuli.

What is the key difference between anxiety and fear?

Anxiety is about the future, while fear is immediate and present-oriented

What are the key diagnostic criteria for Generalised Anxiety Disorder according to DSM-5?

Excessive anxiety and worry about multiple things occurring more days than not for at least 6 months

What is a panic attack?

An abrupt experience of intense fear where there is no real danger

Study Notes

Factors Affecting Mental Health

  • Genetics, head injuries, and neurotransmitter imbalance can affect mental health by altering neurotransmitter levels
  • Behavioural factors such as lack of exercise, poor diet, and sleep deprivation can contribute to mental health problems
  • Developmental factors such as childhood trauma, abuse, and neglect can increase the risk of developing mental health disorders later in life
  • Emotional and cognitive factors such as low self-esteem, negative thought patterns, and poor coping mechanisms can make an individual more prone to anxiety and depression

Mental Disorders

  • Biological factors such as genetic predisposition, brain chemistry, and hormonal imbalance can contribute to the development of mental disorders
  • The principal of equifinality states that different factors can lead to the same mental health outcome
  • Emotional and cognitive influences such as learned helplessness, cognitive distortions, and poor emotional regulation can contribute to the development of mental disorders

Assessment and Diagnosis

  • The goal of a behavioral assessment is to identify and understand an individual's behavior and its underlying causes
  • Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure, while validity refers to the accuracy of a measure
  • The ABCs of observation in a behavioral assessment involve noting the Antecedent (events before the behavior), Behavior (the actual behavior), and Consequence (events after the behavior)
  • The purpose of a mental status exam is to evaluate an individual's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning

DSM-5 and Diagnosis

  • The DSM-III was heavily criticized for its poor reliability and loosely described categories based on psychoanalytic theory
  • The idiographic approach to diagnosis focuses on the unique aspects of an individual's symptoms, while the nomothetic approach focuses on grouping individuals into categories based on shared symptoms
  • The prototypical approach to diagnosis involves identifying the prototypical characteristics of a disorder
  • The aim of the DSM-5 is to provide a standardized system for diagnosing and classifying mental health disorders

Specific Disorders

  • Social Anxiety Disorder involves fear of social or performance situations
  • The BEST treatment for Specific Phobia is exposure therapy
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder affects 4-5% of children
  • The most efficacious treatment for Selective Mutism is behavioral therapy
  • The lifetime prevalence of panic disorder is 4.7%
  • Symptoms of panic attacks include palpitations, sweating, and trembling
  • The prevalence of specific phobias is 12.5%
  • The cognitive avoidance model of worry states that individuals avoid anxiety-provoking thoughts and situations
  • Anxiety involves excessive concern about the future, while fear involves a response to a perceived threat
  • The key diagnostic criteria for Generalised Anxiety Disorder according to DSM-5 include excessive anxiety and worry about everyday things.

Test your knowledge on the fundamental concepts of psychological assessment and diagnosis. Learn about the systematic evaluation of individuals, the purpose and value of assessment, and the reliability and validity of measurements. Keywords: assessment, diagnosis, reliability, validity, treatment planning.

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