Pituitary and Thyroid Gland Quiz

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30 Questions

Which part of the pituitary gland communicates with the brain via a portal plexus of veins?

Anterior pituitary

Which one of the following is NOT an anterior pituitary hormone?

ADH

Which hormone is responsible for water balance?

ADH

Which hormones directly act on target organs?

GH, prolactin, ADH

Which part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is responsible for negative feedback?

Target organs

Which of the following is NOT covered in the lecture on endocrine pathophysiology?

Bone/Calcium Metabolism

Which of the following is NOT a learning objective of the course?

Understand the role of hormones in bone metabolism

What is the grading breakdown for this course?

40% midterm, 60% final exam

Which of the following is NOT a main endocrine system?

Pancreas

What is the study of hormone action and the organs in which hormones are formed called?

Endocrinology

Which of the following is a symptom of pheochromocytoma?

Headache and sweating

What should be done before performing dental procedures on a patient with untreated pheochromocytoma?

Consult with an endocrinologist

Which hormone can impact healing after dental procedures in patients with Cushing's syndrome?

Cortisol

What are the symptoms of an adrenal crisis?

Weakness and fatigue

When should dental procedures be performed on a patient with untreated pheochromocytoma?

After blood pressure monitoring

Which medication is the drug of choice for hypothyroidism?

Levothyroxine (T4)

What is the half-life of Levothyroxine (T4)?

7-10 days

What are the dental concerns in children with severe hypothyroidism?

All of the above

What can precipitate myxedema coma in untreated and severe hypothyroidism?

All of the above

What is the risk associated with epinephrine use in patients with hyperthyroidism?

Arrhythmias

Which of the following is a symptom of Cushing's syndrome?

Weight gain

What is the primary cause of adrenal insufficiency?

Autoimmune disease

Which hormone is responsible for regulating the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats?

Cortisol

What is the treatment for adrenal insufficiency?

Administration of exogenous steroids

What is the most common cause of Cushing's syndrome?

Exogenous glucocorticoid medication

Which of the following is a symptom that can be caused by a large pituitary adenoma affecting adjacent structures?

Blindness

What is the most common cause of posterior pituitary hypofunction?

Large pituitary tumors

Which of the following hormones can be hypersecreted by pituitary adenomas?

Adrenal hormones

What are the dental concerns associated with acromegaly?

Malocclusion

What is the primary function of the thyroid gland?

Metabolism in adults

Study Notes

Pituitary Gland and Thyroid Gland: Key Points

  • Autopsy studies show that pituitary incidentalomas are found in 15-27% of individuals, suggesting a prevalence of 10-15% of all intracranial tumors.
  • Pituitary masses can be microadenomas (less than 1cm) or macroadenomas (larger than 1cm).
  • Pituitary masses can cause clinical symptoms due to their effect on adjacent structures such as the hypothalamus, optic nerves, cavernous sinus, temporal lobes, and sphenoid sinus.
  • The direction of adenoma growth in the pituitary can affect neighboring structures, leading to symptoms such as blindness, headache, pituitary hormone deficiency, disconjugate gaze, drooping eyelid, pupil abnormality, facial pain, nosebleed, and posterior pharyngeal mass.
  • Large pituitary adenomas can extend downward through the sphenoid sinus into the oropharynx.
  • Posterior pituitary hypofunction can be caused by anything that destroys the neuron extending from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary, such as large pituitary tumors, trauma, pituitary surgery, infection/inflammation.
  • Posterior pituitary hypofunction can lead to diabetes insipidus, characterized by very dilute urine, extreme thirst, dehydration, fatigue, headache, and lethargy. Treatment includes DDAVP.
  • Anterior pituitary hypofunction can result in low levels of growth hormone, adrenal hormones, thyroid hormone, and sex hormones. Causes include congenital defects, tumors, apoplexy.
  • GH deficiency in children can lead to short stature and other developmental issues. Treatment involves supplemental growth hormone.
  • Pituitary adenomas can hypersecrete specific hormones, such as prolactin, ACTH, GH, TSH, LH/FSH. Non-secreting pituitary adenomas are also common.
  • Acromegaly is characterized by excess secretion of GH and IGF-1. Before puberty, it leads to gigantism, while after puberty, it causes acromegaly. Dental concerns in acromegaly include malocclusion, increased space between teeth, increased growth of retropharyngeal soft tissues, hypercementosis.
  • Thyroid gland functions include growth, development, metabolism in children, and metabolism in adults. TSH stimulates production of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4). Thyroid nodules and goiter can cause obstruction of the trachea and blood vessels, leading to symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, facial plethora, and distended neck veins. Hypothyroidism is more common in women and can cause fatigue, weight gain, constipation, facial puffiness, cold intolerance. Causes include autoimmune disease, surgery, radiation. Treatment aims to keep TSH in the

Test your knowledge on the pituitary gland and thyroid gland with this informative quiz! Learn about pituitary masses, their clinical symptoms, and the effects they can have on neighboring structures. Explore the causes and symptoms of posterior and anterior pituitary hypofunction, as well as the hypersecretion of specific hormones. Discover the functions of the thyroid gland, the symptoms of thyroid nodules and goiter, and the causes and treatment of hypothyroidism. Challenge yourself and expand your understanding

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