PhChem 5: Antifungal Agents and Fungal Infections
29 Questions
3 Views
3.3 Stars

PhChem 5: Antifungal Agents and Fungal Infections

Created by
@AgreeableHydrogen

Questions and Answers

What is NOT a method of transmission for TB?

Shaking hands

What is the purpose of a Tubercular Skin Test?

To determine the risk of TB

Why is combination therapy given for the treatment of TB?

To reduce the toxicity of individual drugs

What is the purpose of Directly Observed Therapy (DOTS)?

<p>To ensure patient adherence to therapy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of a high-risk Tubercular Skin Test?

<p>&gt;10mm</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary cause of fungal infections?

<p>Invasion of epithelial tissue by microscopic organisms</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of polyene antifungal agents?

<p>Broad spectrum against pathogenic yeast, molds, and dermatophytes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common side effect of amphotericin B?

<p>Nephrotoxicity</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the advantage of higher molecular weight fatty acids in topical antifungal agents?

<p>Lower volatility</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of salt forms of topical antifungal agents?

<p>Fungicidal in nature</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the unique characteristic of benzoic acid as an antifungal agent?

<p>Cannot penetrate the skin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the mechanism of action of Griseofulvin?

<p>Inhibiting the mitotic spindle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following antifungal agents is isolated from Streptomyces noursei?

<p>Nystatin</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary use of Clotrimazole (Canesten)?

<p>Topical treatment of tinea and candidiasis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following antifungal agents is an allylamine?

<p>Terbinafine</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of Fluconazole among the azole antifungal agents?

<p>The only water-soluble azole</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the use of Naftifine HCl?

<p>Topical treatment of ringworm, athlete's foot, and jock itch</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the mechanism of action of Echinocandins?

<p>Blocks Beta-glucan synthase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the use of Flucytosine?

<p>Treatment of infection caused by Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the mode of transmission of Tuberculosis?

<p>Through air from one person to another</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of Flucytosine's inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis?

<p>Unbalanced growth and death of the fungal organism</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the causative organism of Tuberculosis?

<p>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is theDOC for Aspergillosis?

<p>Echinocandins</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the mode of action of Quinolones?

<p>Inhibit DNA Gyrase (Topoisomerase II) and Topoisomerase IV</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary use of Benzoyl benzoate?

<p>Topically applied scabivide</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the current recommended treatment phase for Pulmonary TB?

<p>6 months regimen with RIPE and RIP</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the classification of Rifampicin?

<p>Nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the predecessor of all subsequently developed quinolone antibiotics?

<p>Nalidixic acid</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the use of Lindane?

<p>Treatment of scabies and pediculosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Tuberculosis (TB)

  • Cause: Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria
  • Spread: Through air from one person to another
  • Not everyone infected becomes sick; two conditions exist: latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease
  • TB bacteria can attack any part of the body, such as the lungs, kidney, spine, and brain
  • If not treated, TB disease can be fatal

Diagnosis

  • Chest X-ray
  • AFB Screening
  • Tubercular Skin Test
    • >15mm: low risk
    • >10mm: high risk
    • >5mm: immunocompromised

Treatment

  • Combination therapy: To broaden spectrum, reduce toxicity, and prevent resistance
  • Directly Observed Therapy (DOTS)
    • Trained designated person watches patient swallow each dose of anti-TB drugs and documents it
    • Helps ensure patients adhere to therapy

Anti-Tubercular Agents

  • Classified as:
    • Bactericidal
    • Bacteriostatic
  • Examples:
    • Rifampicin
    • Isoniazid
    • Ethambutol
    • Pyrazinamide
    • Streptomycin

Antifungal Agents

  • Classification:
    • Polyenes
    • Griseofulvin
    • Allylamines
    • Azoles
    • Echinocandins
    • Flucytosine
  • Examples:
    • Amphotericin B
    • Nystatin
    • Clotrimazole
    • Ketoconazole
    • Fluconazole
    • Terbinafine
    • Naftifine
    • Itraconazole
    • Capsofungin
    • Micafungin

Scabicides and Pediculicides

  • Scabivides: compounds used to control mites (Sarcoptes scabiei)
  • Pediculicides: used to eliminate head, body, crab lice, and fleas
  • Examples:
    • Benzoyl benzoate
    • Lindane
    • Crotamiton
    • Permethrin

Studying That Suits You

Use AI to generate personalized quizzes and flashcards to suit your learning preferences.

Quiz Team

Description

Learn about antifungal agents, types of fungal infections, and how they affect the human body. Understand the differences between superficial, subcutaneous, and systemic infections. Test your knowledge on medicinal chemistry and pharmacology!

More Quizzes Like This

Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser