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Pathophysiology Respiratory Diseases Lecture #2 Symptoms Quiz

Test your knowledge on the signs and symptoms of respiratory diseases with this quiz based on the lecture by Steve Casarez, RN, NRP. Identify key indicators such as dyspnea, hypoxemia, cyanosis, sputum, clubbing, rales or crackles, and more.

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Questions and Answers

What is the term for difficulty breathing?

Dyspnea

Which condition is characterized by coughing up blood?

Hemoptysis

What does the term 'Clubbing' refer to in relation to respiratory diseases?

Poor distal circulation

Which term is used to describe 'musical whistling' sounds during breathing?

<p>Wheezing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What does 'Stridor' indicate in the context of respiratory diseases?

<p>Airway obstruction</p> Signup and view all the answers

What can cause 'Crackles' or 'Rales' in the lungs?

<p>Pneumonia or Pulmonary edema</p> Signup and view all the answers

'Hypoxemia' refers to the condition of:

<p>Not enough Oxygen</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a common viral infection in children that leads to airway narrowing, obstruction, and respiratory failure?

<p>Laryngotracheobronchitis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which disease is characterized by increased upper respiratory exudate and manifests as hoarseness, sore throat, and difficulty breathing?

<p>Laryngotracheobronchitis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition involves inflammation of the larynx and presents with manifestations such as weak voice, sore throat, and dry cough?

<p>Epiglottitis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which respiratory condition is caused by overuse and can lead to manifestations like pain on palpation of the anterior neck and muffled voice?

<p>Epiglottitis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the common name for the viral infection that causes airway swelling in children, leading to seal-like barking cough and dyspnea?

<p>Croup</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition involves increased production of mucus, trapping of air in the lungs, decreased oxygen exchange, dyspnea, and wheezing?

<p>Emphysema</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition is characterized by a barking cough in children?

<p>Croup</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the treatment of choice for croup?

<p>Racemic Epinephrine</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a common manifestation of the common cold?

<p>Nasal congestion</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the incubation period for the common cold?

<p>2-3 days</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which condition is characterized by inflammation of the sinus cavities?

<p>Sinusitis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is a life-threatening condition that occludes the airway due to inflammation of the epiglottis?

<p>Epiglottitis</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a common manifestation of epiglottitis?

<p>Stridor</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is the most common cause of bronchiolitis?

<p>Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a typical manifestation of bronchiolitis?

<p>Chest pain</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of pneumonia is confined to a single lobe of the lung?

<p>Lobular pneumonia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is the most frequent type of pneumonia?

<p>Bronchopneumonia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is routinely caused by viruses or uncommon bacteria?

<p>Interstitial pneumonia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is acquired outside the hospital or healthcare setting?

<p>Community-acquired pneumonia</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a potential treatment for bronchiolitis?

<p>Bronchodilators</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is a common cause of aspiration pneumonia?

<p>Impaired gag reflex</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following diagnostic tests is typically used for bronchiolitis?

<p>All of the above</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary diagnostic tool used to confirm pneumonia?

<p>Sputum cultures</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which symptom is most commonly associated with pneumonia in the elderly?

<p>Mental status changes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the key characteristic of tuberculosis primary infection?

<p>Formation of granuloma and tubercle</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which preventive measure is specifically recommended for tuberculosis?

<p>Frequent hand washing</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most appropriate initial treatment for tuberculosis?

<p>Antibiotics</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which type of hypersensitivity reaction is associated with the spread of tuberculosis to lymph nodes?

<p>Type IV</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the key principle emphasized in the text for managing the airway?

<p>Continually practicing multiple airway techniques</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the recommended first step in airway management?

<p>Assess the patient's physical features and anatomy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the '3-3-2' rule mentioned in the text?

<p>The distance between the patient's teeth, hyoid-mental distance, and thyroid-to-mouth distance should each be 3, 3, and 2 finger widths, respectively.</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the Mallampati assessment mentioned in the text?

<p>To classify the ease of visualizing the oropharyngeal structures</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following airway management techniques is considered the 'Best Way To Manage And Open The Airway' according to the text?

<p>Jaw thrust</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the 'Range Time' mentioned in the text?

<p>To practice airway management techniques in simulation exercises</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the significance of the '4-90's' mentioned in the text?

<p>The desired outcomes for airway management: 90% first-time pass success rate for endotracheal intubation, SpO2 above 90%, and systolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the purpose of the 'Scissor Technique' mentioned in the text?

<p>To open the airway by tilting the patient's head back</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the best way to manage BVM ventilations according to the text?

<p>Two person, two thumbs up, jaw thrust</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the optimal position for intubating a non-traumatic adult patient?

<p>Sniffing position</p> Signup and view all the answers

What should be done when intubating an adult patient?

<p>Remove the stylet and do not let go of the tube</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the best way to manage an airway using a bag valve mask?

<p>Two person, two thumbs up, jaw thrust</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the optimal position for intubating a child or pediatric patient?

<p>Sniffing position</p> Signup and view all the answers

What should be done when intubating an adult patient to ensure proper blade and body position?

<p>Look for the anatomical landmarks</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the best way to manage BVM ventilations according to the traditional method?

<p>C-E or C-3, the traditional way of utilizing the BVM</p> Signup and view all the answers

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Study Notes

Respiratory Diseases

  • Dyspnea refers to difficulty breathing.
  • Hemoptysis is characterized by coughing up blood.
  • Clubbing refers to a deformity of the fingers and toes, often associated with respiratory diseases.
  • Wheezing is described as a 'musical whistling' sound during breathing.
  • Stridor indicates a high-pitched sound during breathing, often associated with upper airway obstruction.
  • Crackles or Rales in the lungs can be caused by fluid accumulation, pneumonia, or bronchiectasis.
  • Hypoxemia refers to a condition of low oxygen levels in the blood.

Childhood Respiratory Infections

  • Croup is a common viral infection in children that leads to airway narrowing, obstruction, and respiratory failure.
  • Laryngitis is characterized by increased upper respiratory exudate, hoarseness, sore throat, and difficulty breathing.
  • Epiglottitis is a life-threatening condition that occludes the airway due to inflammation of the epiglottitis, often presenting with a high fever, difficulty breathing, and drooling.
  • The common cold is characterized by a runny nose, sore throat, and cough, with an incubation period of 2-3 days.

Pulmonary Conditions

  • Bronchiolitis is a respiratory condition characterized by increased production of mucus, trapping of air in the lungs, decreased oxygen exchange, dyspnea, and wheezing, often caused by viruses.
  • Lobar pneumonia is confined to a single lobe of the lung.
  • Community-acquired pneumonia is the most frequent type of pneumonia, acquired outside the hospital or healthcare setting.
  • Aspiration pneumonia is often caused by inhaling food, liquids, or other substances into the lungs.

Tuberculosis

  • Tuberculosis primary infection is characterized by a localized infection with limited spread.
  • The Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a preventive measure specifically recommended for tuberculosis.
  • The most appropriate initial treatment for tuberculosis is a combination of antibiotics.

Airway Management

  • The key principle emphasized in airway management is maintaining a patent airway.
  • The recommended first step in airway management is to assess the patient's airway.
  • The '3-3-2' rule states that the airway should be assessed within 3 minutes, 3 attempts at intubation, and 2 minutes for each attempt.
  • The Mallampati assessment is used to evaluate the patient's airway.
  • The 'Best Way To Manage And Open The Airway' is the Head-Elevated Laryngoscopy (HEL) technique.
  • The 'Range Time' refers to the time it takes to prepare for intubation.
  • The '4-90's' rule states that the patient should be pre-oxygenated for 4 minutes, and the intubation attempt should be made within 90 seconds.
  • The 'Scissor Technique' is used to open the airway.
  • The best way to manage BVM ventilations is to use a two-person technique.
  • The optimal position for intubating a non-traumatic adult patient is the sniffing position.
  • When intubating an adult patient, the blade and body position should be ensured to be proper.
  • The optimal position for intubating a child or pediatric patient is the neutral position.
  • When intubating a child or pediatric patient, the head should be in a neutral position, and the blade should be inserted at the midpoint of the tongue.

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