Organic Chemistry Class

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40 Questions

What is the common name for the alkane with the structure CH₃CH₂CH₂CH₂CH₃?

Hexane

What is the result of hydrolysis of Grignard reagent?

Formation of alkane

Which of the following is an example of an alkyl lithium compound?

Methyllithium

What is the product of the reaction between an alkane and a halogen at high temperature?

Alkyl halide

What is the result of pyrolysis of an alkane?

Formation of an alkene and a smaller alkane

What is the general formula for alkenes?

CnH₂n

What is the primary characteristic of carbon atoms in organic chemistry?

Ability to form four covalent bonds

What is the definition of organic chemistry?

The study of carbon-containing compounds and their derivatives

What is the type of reaction that occurs when an alkane is burned in air?

Combustion

What is the basis of organic chemistry?

The ability of carbon to form chains and multiple bonds

What is the name of the type of reaction that involves the substitution of a halogen atom for a hydrogen atom in an alkane?

Substitution

What is the name of the rule that describes the aromaticity of benzene?

Huckel rule

What is the name of the structure of benzene that is commonly used to represent it?

Kekule structure

What is the term for the study of the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in molecules?

Stereochemistry

What is the term for the compounds that contain a ring of atoms?

Cyclic compounds

What is the name of the exam that is typically taken at the midpoint of an organic chemistry course?

Midterm exam

What is the functional group in alkenes?

double bond

What is the correct way to number the longest continuous chain in IUPAC nomenclature of alkenes?

in a direction that gives the lowest possible number

What is the parent name of the compound CH₃CH₂CH₂CH=CHCH₂CH₃?

hexene

How are substituents cited in IUPAC nomenclature of alkenes?

in alphabetical order

What is the correct IUPAC name for the compound CH₃CH₂C(CH₃)CH=CH₂?

2-methyl-1-butene

How are cyclic alkenes numbered in IUPAC nomenclature?

the double bond is between carbons 1 and 2

What is the common name for the compound CH₂=CH₂?

ethylene

Which of the following allyl groups is acceptable in IUPAC nomenclature?

all of the above

What is the common name of the compound HC=CHCl?

Vinyl chloride

What type of diene has two double bonds separated by one or more sp3-hybridization carbon atoms?

Isolated diene

What is the name of the process that involves the removal of a halogen atom from an alkyl halide to form an alkene?

Dehydrohalogenation

What is the catalyst used in the reduction of alkynes to cis-alkenes?

Lindlar catalyst

What is the name of the compound CH2=CHCH2Br?

Bromopropene

What type of diene has two double bonds connected to each other by a single bond?

Conjugated diene

What is the product of the dehydrohalogenation reaction of CH3CH2Cl with KOH?

Ethene

What is the type of reaction that alkenes undergo with hydrogen atoms?

Addition reaction

What type of reaction occurs in the addition of halogen halides to alkenes?

Addition

What is the general formula for alkynes?

CnH2n-2

What is the functional group in alkynes?

Triple bond

How are substituents cited in the IUPAC name of an alkyne?

In alphabetical order with a designation of the carbon atom

What is the reaction type in the hydroboration-oxidation of alkenes?

Addition

What is the name of the reaction in which water is added to an alkene?

Hydration

What is the reactant that is used to prepare alkynes?

Alkyl dihalides

What is the commercial source of borane?

Both ether and THF

Study Notes

Organic Chemistry

  • Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon atoms.
  • It is based on the properties of carbon atoms, which have a valency of 4 and can form chains, branches, and multiple bonds.

Classes of Organic Compounds

  • Alkanes: saturated hydrocarbons with single bonds between carbon atoms.
  • Alkenes: unsaturated hydrocarbons with double bonds between carbon atoms.
  • Alkynes: unsaturated hydrocarbons with triple bonds between carbon atoms.
  • Alkyl halides: halogen-substituted alkanes.
  • Alcohols: hydroxyl-functionalized alkanes.
  • Ethers: oxygen-functionalized alkanes.
  • Aldehydes and ketones: carbonyl-functionalized alkanes.
  • Carboxylic acids: carboxyl-functionalized alkanes.
  • Esters: carboxyl-functionalized alkanes with an alkyl group.
  • Amines: nitrogen-functionalized alkanes.
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons: planar, ring-shaped hydrocarbons with delocalized electrons.

Alkanes

  • General formula: CnH2n+2
  • Examples: methane (CH4), propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10)
  • Preparation:
    • Reduction of alkyl halides
    • Coupling of alkyl halides with organometallic compounds
  • Reactions:
    • Halogenation (substitution)
    • Cracking (pyrolysis)
    • Combustion (addition of oxygen)

Alkenes

  • General formula: CnH2n
  • Examples: ethene (C2H4), propene (C3H6), butene (C4H8)
  • Functional group: double bond
  • Nomenclature:
    • IUPAC names: based on the longest continuous chain containing the functional group
    • Common names: based on the alkyl group and the functional group
  • Preparation:
    • Dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides
    • Reduction of alkynes
  • Reactions:
    • Addition of halogen halides (Markovnikov addition)
    • Addition of sulphuric acid
    • Addition of water (hydration)
    • Hydroxylation
    • Hydroboration-oxidation

Alkynes

  • General formula: CnH2n-2
  • Examples: ethyne (C2H2), propyne (C3H4), butyne (C4H6)
  • Functional group: triple bond
  • Nomenclature:
    • IUPAC names: based on the longest continuous chain containing the functional group
    • Common names: based on the alkyl group and the functional group
  • Preparation:
    • Dehydrohalogenation of alkyl dihalides
  • Reactions:
    • Addition of halogen halides
    • Addition of sulphuric acid
    • Addition of water (hydration)
    • Hydroxylation
    • Hydroboration-oxidation

This quiz covers the basics of organic chemistry, including classes of organic compounds, properties, and reactions of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.

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