## 49 Questions

What happens to absolute ventilation at maximum with training?

It increases

What is the effect of detraining on ventilation?

VE/VO2 increases (lungs become less efficient)

What is the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) for fats combustion?

$rac{16 CO2}{23 O2}$

What is the equation for carb combustion?

$C6H12O6 +6 O2 + 38 ADP + 38 Pi → 6CO2 6H2O + 38 ATP + (heat)$

What does the ETC (Electron Transport Chain) use as an electron acceptor?

O2

What is the steady state definition?

O2 provides required energy and does not change over time

What happens to the a-vO2 difference at rest and maximum with training?

It increases

What is the effect of more lactic acid production on acidity?

Increases acidity

What is the equation for fats combustion?

$C16H32O2 + 23O2 + 129 ADP + 129 Pi → 16 CO2 + 16 H2O + 129 ATP + (heat)$

What is the effect of detraining on lung efficiency?

Lungs become less efficient

What is the equation for the Krebs cycle Pyruvate processing (PDH reaction)?

$C16H32O2 + 23O2 + 129 ADP + 129 Pi → 16 CO2 + 16 H2O + 129 ATP + (heat)$

What is the caloric equivalent, in kcal/L O2/min, used for indirect calorimetry?

5 kcal/L O2/min

What is the formula to calculate caloric cost (kcal/min) of an activity using VO2 (L/min) and the caloric equivalent (kcal/L O2/min)?

Caloric cost (kcal/min) = VO2 (L/min) * caloric equivalent (kcal/L O2/min)

What is the metabolic equivalent (MET) if the VO2/body mass is 44.1 mL/kg/min?

12.6 METs

What is the formula to calculate mechanical efficiency (%)?

Mechanical efficiency (%) = external work accomplished (watts) / energy expended (VO2) * 100

What is the caloric cost in kcal/min for a given work rate if the VO2 is 1.35 L/min and the work rate is 65 watts?

4.25 kcal/min

What is the gross efficiency for a work rate of 65 watts or 400 kg·m/min, if the VO2 is 1.35 L/min?

13.9%

What is the net efficiency for a work rate of 65 watts or 400 kg·m/min, if the VO2 is 1.35 L/min?

22.0%

What is the delta efficiency for a work rate of 65 watts or 400 kg·m/min, if the VO2 is 1.35 L/min and the VO2 rest is 0.5 L/min?

26.7%

What is the definition of hyperpnea?

Increased depth and rate of breathing

What is the definition of 'ventilatory drift' and its function?

Rise in ventilation after a period of exercise; helps in acid base balance

What is the physiological dead space from?

Non-perfused alveolus

What is the equation for minute ventilation (VE)?

Frequency * Tidal volume

What is the triphasic response in ventilation related to?

Breathing factors

What is the measure of gas exchange efficiency represented by the VD/VT ratio?

Dead space to tidal volume ratio

Why is 'ventilatory drift' considered to make breathing inefficient?

It causes unnecessary air to be breathed

What is the anatomical dead space approximately for an average person?

150 mL

What is the primary factor responsible for the initial increase in minute ventilation?

Tidal ventilation

What does the term 'tidal volume' refer to?

Volume of air inhaled and exhaled during normal breathing

What is the function of central chemoreceptors?

Detect pH

What is the effect of an increase in blood pH on the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?

Shifts left, enhancing oxygen binding to hemoglobin

What is the primary function of peripheral chemoreceptors?

Detect hypoxia and hypercapnia

What is the main factor that affects hemoglobin binding to oxygen?

PO2 (partial pressure of oxygen)

What happens to the a-vO2 difference during submax steady-state exercise?

It levels off

What is the main source of H+ in the body?

Lactic acid

How does exercising affect the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?

Shifts right, enhancing oxygen offloading

What is the primary function of bronchodilation?

Decreases resistance in airways with exercise

What is the main function of minute ventilation (VE)?

Factors affecting the rate and depth of breathing

What is the main factor that affects the diffusion of oxygen into the blood?

Alveolar and arterial partial pressure difference

What is the definition of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH)?

Condition when O2 carried in arterial blood is severely reduced during exercise

What happens to alveolar ventilation during incremental exercise?

It follows minute ventilation

Why does the body pump more blood to muscles during exercise?

To supply more oxygen to the muscles

What happens to oxygen levels in the muscles during incremental exercise?

Oxygen levels plateau around ~50%

What is the effect of higher intensity exercise on arterial CO2 levels?

Arterial CO2 levels drop off

What is the atmospheric pressure at sea level?

760 mm Hg

What characterizes mild exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH)?

Arterial blood oxygen reduced to 93-95%

What happens to the oxygen gradient at around 80% intensity of maximum exercise?

Gradient increases to get oxygen into the blood

What happens to venous blood saturation as workload increases during incremental exercise?

It decreases and plateaus around ~80%

What defines severe exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH)?

Arterial blood oxygen reduced by 10 mm Hg PaO2

Test your knowledge of O2 drift with this quiz, covering the definition, factors influencing O2 drift, and its impact on VO

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