Nucleic Acids III: Gene Expression and Transcription Quiz

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32 Questions

What is the first step in gene expression?

Transcription

Where does eukaryotic transcription take place?

Nucleus

What are the three sequential stages of eukaryotic transcription?

Initiation, elongation, termination

What is the function of RNA polymerases in transcription?

They select the correct ribonucleoside triphosphate and catalyse the formation of a phosphodiester bond

What is transcribed during transcription?

DNA

What do RNA polymerases detect during transcription?

Termination signals

Which RNA polymerase is responsible for transcribing all mRNAs, some snRNAs, siRNAs, and all microRNAs?

RNA Polymerase II

Which RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of all rRNA genes except 5S?

RNA Polymerase I

Which RNA polymerase transcribes small untranslated RNAs essential for certain cellular functions, including tRNAs?

RNA Polymerase III

Which component is NOT required for RNA transcription by RNA polymerase?

Primer RNA

What is the fundamental reaction of RNA synthesis?

Formation of a phosphodiester bond

What does the pre-mRNA undergo before exiting into the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex?

Splicing out of exons

Which structure of the nucleus is responsible for the transcription of rRNA genes?

Nucleolus

What initiates the separation of the DNA strands during the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase?

Formation of a preinitiation complex

$5'$ to $3'$ direction is characteristic of which process?

$RNA$ transcription

$RNA$ polymerase is less effective at correcting mistakes compared to DNA polymerase due to:

$RNA$ polymerase lacking proofreading activity

What are the three sequential stages of eukaryotic transcription?

Initiation, elongation, and termination

What is the function of RNA polymerases in transcription?

They search for initiation sites, unwind double-helical DNA, select correct ribonucleoside triphosphate, and detect termination signals.

Which RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of all rRNA genes except 5S?

RNA polymerase I

What does the pre-mRNA undergo before exiting into the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex?

Pre-mRNA undergoes processing, including capping, splicing, and polyadenylation, before exiting into the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex.

What initiates the separation of the DNA strands during the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase?

RNA polymerase unwinds a short stretch of double-helical DNA to initiate the separation of the DNA strands during transcription.

Why is RNA polymerase less effective at correcting mistakes compared to DNA polymerase?

RNA polymerase lacks proofreading ability and has a higher error rate compared to DNA polymerase.

What is the function of RNA polymerase II?

Transcription of all mRNAs, some snRNAs, siRNAs, and all microRNAs.

Where does the transcription of rRNA genes take place?

Nucleolus

What is the fundamental difference between RNA synthesis and DNA synthesis?

RNA synthesis does not require a primer.

What components are required for RNA transcription by RNA polymerase?

Activated precursors ATP, GTP, UTP & CTP; A DNA template; A divalent metal ion Mg++ or Mn++.

What is the initiating event for the separation of DNA strands during the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase?

A conformational change in the preinitiation complex.

What cellular structure is responsible for the transcription of small untranslated RNAs essential for certain cellular functions, including tRNAs?

Nucleus (and possibly the nucleolus-nucleoplasm interface).

What is the primary product of RNA polymerase I transcription?

Larger ribosomal RNA (rRNA) (28S, 18S 5.8S).

What is the primary function of RNA polymerase III?

Transcribing small untranslated RNAs essential for certain cellular functions, including tRNAs.

What drives the synthesis of RNA in the 5’ to 3’ direction?

Hydrolysis of pyrophosphate.

What is the enzymatic activity responsible for the formation of a complementary RNA strand during transcription?

Formation of a phosphodiester bond.

Test your knowledge about gene expression, transcription, and the types of RNA involved in the process such as mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA. Explore the intricacies of DNA transcription and translation into proteins.

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