Neuroplasticity Quiz

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144 Questions

What is the average number of synapses a neuron makes?

~10,000 synapses

What are the two types of synapses mentioned in the text?

Glutamate and GABA

What is the approximate number of neurons in the brain?

85 billion

Who discovered that animals receiving motor training had larger cerebellums?

Michele Malacarne

Who proposed that the brain and its function are not fixed in 1890?

William James

Who observed dynamic and adaptive properties after brain injuries in 1945?

Justo Gonzalo

Who produced the first scientific evidence of anatomical brain plasticity in 1964?

Marian Diamond

What is the role of glia in the brain?

Supporting and protecting neurons

What did Associate Professor Janet Taylor advocate for in the context of brain function?

Localizationism

What is the primary function of neurons?

Controlling motor output

What is the definition of neuroplasticity?

The nervous system's ability to reorganize its structure and function in response to stimuli

What is the principle associated with neuroplasticity?

Neurons that fire together, wire together

Which study documented changes in the hippocampus of London taxi drivers?

Eleanor Maguire's documentation of changes in the hippocampus of London taxi drivers

In which level can neuroplasticity occur?

At molecular, cellular, system, and behavioral levels

What is the role of neurotrophins like BDNF in neuroplasticity?

They play a role in motor learning and memory after stroke

What is an application of neuroplasticity mentioned in the text?

Treatment of chronic pain after limb amputation

What is involved in neuroplasticity in development?

Brain growth, critical periods, and ongoing neurogenesis in specific brain areas

What is an adverse example of neuroplasticity mentioned in the text?

Phantom limb sensations after limb amputation

What did rats in enriched environments show compared to those in basic environments?

Thicker cortices

In what clinical scenarios is the potential for neuroplasticity mentioned in the text?

Blindness and severe epilepsy

Which therapy is used for activating the lesion side and suppressing inhibition from the unaffected side?

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

What is thought to cause the transition from casual drug use to compulsive drug-seeking behavior?

Long-lasting neuroadaptations in reward pathways

Which intervention has been associated with enlarged motor cortex map in upper limb constraint therapy?

Physical Training and Exercise

What is used to activate the lesion side and suppress inhibition from the unaffected side?

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

Which therapy is used for non-invasive brain stimulation involving transcranial direct current stimulation?

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)

Which intervention has been associated with significant increases in Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale compared to placebo groups?

Citalopram or Fluoxetine

What is used to promote neuroplasticity through non-invasive brain stimulation?

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

Which therapy is used for deep brain stimulation affecting structural and functional connectivity?

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)

What has been associated with constraint therapy for upper limb?

Enlarged motor cortex map

What has been associated with significant increases in Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale compared to placebo groups?

Citalopram or Fluoxetine

What did anatomist Michele Malacarne discover in 1793?

Animals that received motor training had larger cerebellums than untrained animals

What did Marian Diamond produce in 1964?

First scientific evidence of anatomical brain plasticity

What was the observation made by neuroscientist Justo Gonzalo in 1945?

Dynamic and adaptive properties after brain injuries

What did psychologist William James propose in 1890?

The brain and its function are not fixed

What is the approximate number of neurons in the brain?

85 billion

What are synapses in the brain primarily responsible for?

Excitatory or inhibitory signaling

What is the role of glia in the brain?

Support and protect neurons

What is the average number of synapses a neuron makes?

~10,000

What did Associate Professor Janet Taylor advocate for in the context of brain function?

Localisationism

What did anatomist Michele Malacarne discover in 1793?

Animals that received motor training had larger cerebellums than untrained animals

Which therapy is used for non-invasive brain stimulation involving transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

What intervention has been associated with significant increases in Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale compared to placebo groups?

Physical training and exercise

What is thought to cause the transition from casual drug use to compulsive drug-seeking behavior?

Long-lasting neuroadaptations in reward pathways

Which intervention is used for invasive brain stimulation?

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

What is used to activate the lesion side and suppress inhibition from the unaffected side?

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

Which therapy has been associated with changes in structural and functional connectivity?

Deep brain stimulation

What intervention has been associated with enlarged motor cortex map in upper limb constraint therapy?

Physical training and exercise

Which therapy is used for non-invasive brain stimulation involving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)?

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

What intervention has been associated with significant increases in Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale compared to placebo groups?

Physical training and exercise

Which intervention is used for invasive brain stimulation?

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

What did Eleanor Maguire document regarding London taxi drivers?

Changes in the hippocampus

At which levels can neuroplasticity occur?

Molecular, cellular, system, and behavioral levels

What is the principle associated with neuroplasticity?

Neurons that fire together, wire together

What is an adverse example of neuroplasticity mentioned in the text?

Chronic pain after limb amputation

What is involved in neuroplasticity in development?

Brain growth, critical periods, and ongoing neurogenesis

What is the role of neurotrophins like BDNF in neuroplasticity?

Particularly in motor learning and memory after stroke

What is the potential for neuroplasticity in various clinical scenarios?

Blindness and severe epilepsy

What are the mechanisms of neuroplasticity mentioned in the text?

Changes in neurons, between neurons, and in networks of neurons

What did rats in enriched environments show compared to those in basic environments?

Thicker cortices

What is the definition of neuroplasticity?

The nervous system's ability to reorganize its structure and function in response to stimuli

What is the approximate number of glia in the brain?

85 billion

Who produced the first scientific evidence of anatomical brain plasticity?

Marian Diamond

What did neuroscientist Justo Gonzalo observe after brain injuries in 1945?

Dynamic and adaptive properties

What did psychologist William James propose in 1890?

The brain and its function are not fixed

What neurotransmitter is primarily responsible for excitatory synapses?

Glutamate

What is the primary function of glia in the brain?

Support and protect neurons

What did anatomist Michele Malacarne discover in 1793?

Animals receiving motor training had larger cerebellums

What did Marian Diamond's study in 1964 produce the first scientific evidence of?

Anatomical brain plasticity

What did Associate Professor Janet Taylor advocate for in the context of brain function?

Localisationism

What did anatomist Michele Malacarne discover in 1793 regarding animals receiving motor training?

Had larger cerebellums

Which intervention has been associated with changes in structural and functional connectivity?

Deep brain stimulation (DBS)

What is used to activate the lesion side and suppress inhibition from the unaffected side?

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

What has been associated with constraint therapy for upper limb?

Enlarged motor cortex map

What is used for invasive brain stimulation?

Deep brain stimulation (DBS)

What is the role of neurotrophins like BDNF in neuroplasticity?

Promoting structural changes in the brain

In what clinical scenario is the potential for neuroplasticity mentioned in the text?

Treatment of epilepsy

What did Asadollahi et al. (2018) find regarding neuropharmacological interventions?

Significant increases in Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale

What did Sawaki et al. (2008) associate with constraint therapy for upper limb?

Enlarged motor cortex map

What intervention is used for non-invasive brain stimulation involving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)?

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

What is used to promote neuroplasticity through non-invasive brain stimulation?

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

What did Merzenich observe in 1984 that demonstrated neuroplasticity?

Neighboring digits invading the region of a removed digit in the sensory cortex

What is the principle associated with neuroplasticity?

Neuroplasticity follows the principle that 'neurons that fire together, wire together'

What is the main focus of neuroplasticity according to the text?

The nervous system's ability to reorganize its structure, function, and connections in response to stimuli

What is an example of a maladaptive application of neuroplasticity mentioned in the text?

Chronic pain following limb amputation

What is the role of glia in neuroplasticity?

Glia contribute to neuroplasticity by modulating synaptic transmission

What is the approximate location where Merzenich observed neighboring digits invading the region of a removed digit in the sensory cortex?

Sensory cortex

What is the primary focus of neuroplasticity during development?

Reorganization of brain regions

What did Hubel and Wiesel find in 1964 that demonstrated neuroplasticity?

Brain regions adapting to process information from the open eye when the other was closed

What is the primary focus of neuroplasticity during disease, according to the text?

Reorganization of brain regions

What is the primary mechanism of neuroplasticity according to the text?

Modulation of synaptic transmission between neurons

What is the primary neurotransmitter responsible for excitatory synapses?

Glutamate

What did rats in enriched environments show compared to those in basic environments?

Increased cortical thickness

What did anatomist Michele Malacarne discover in 1793?

The structure of the neuron

What is the approximate number of synapses a neuron makes?

10,000

What did psychologist William James propose in 1890?

The concept of neuroplasticity

What is an application of neuroplasticity mentioned in the text?

Treatment of Parkinson's disease

What is used to activate the lesion side and suppress inhibition from the unaffected side?

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

What has been associated with significant increases in Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale compared to placebo groups?

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

What is involved in neuroplasticity in development?

Synaptic pruning

What is the definition of neuroplasticity?

The adaptability of the brain's neural pathways

What is the approximate number of neurons in the brain?

85 billion

What did anatomist Michele Malacarne discover in 1793?

Animals receiving motor training had larger cerebellums than untrained animals

Who proposed that the brain and its function are not fixed in 1890?

William James

What neurotransmitter is primarily responsible for excitatory synapses?

Glutamate

What did neuroscientist Justo Gonzalo observe in 1945?

Dynamic and adaptive properties after brain injuries

What is the role of glia in the brain?

Support and protect neurons

Who produced the first scientific evidence of anatomical brain plasticity in 1964?

Marian Diamond

What is the average number of synapses a neuron makes?

~10,000

What did psychologist William James propose in 1890?

The brain and its function are not fixed

What is the primary function of glia in the brain?

Support and protect neurons

What did Merzenich observe in 1984 regarding the sensory cortex?

Changes in neighboring digits invading the region of a removed digit

What did Maguire document in 1997 regarding London taxi drivers?

Changes in hippocampal structure as they acquired knowledge of the city's road layout

What is the principle associated with neuroplasticity?

Neurons that fire together, wire together

At which levels can neuroplasticity occur?

Molecular, cellular, system, and behavioral levels

What is the primary site of brain growth after birth?

Cerebral cortex

What is the role of glia in neuroplasticity?

Support and insulation of neurons

Which intervention is an application of neuroplasticity mentioned in the text?

Neurotrophins and stroke

What is the approximate period when the developing brain exhibits a higher degree of plasticity?

During development

What is the key concept of neuroplasticity?

The nervous system's ability to reorganize its structure, function, and connections in response to stimuli

What is the primary mechanism of neuroplasticity mentioned in the text?

Changes in individual neurons, between two neurons, and in a network of neurons

What is the approximate prevalence of stroke in Australia?

1.3%

Which demographic group is more commonly affected by stroke?

Older age groups

What is a common impairment resulting from stroke?

Spasticity

What is the primary role of an Accredited Exercise Physiologist (AEP) in helping stroke patients?

Prescribing exercise and addressing physical impairments

What is the recommended frequency for strength training in post-MI patients?

2-3 days per week

At what intensity should strength training be ramped into over 2-4 weeks?

30-80% 1-RM

What is the minimum recommended number of repetitions for strength training?

1 set of 10-15 repetitions

What type of exercise is recommended to focus on during strength training?

Large muscle groups

Which medication is associated with a decrease in resting and exercising blood pressure?

Diuretics

Which clinical scale is used for assessing activities of daily living (ADLs) and functional independence?

Barthel Index

What is the primary characteristic of spasticity?

Exaggerated tendon jerks

Which rehabilitation approach involves repetition of a functional task or part of the task?

Task-specific training

What percentage of strokes are accounted for by ischemic strokes?

70%

Which of the following is a non-modifiable risk factor for stroke?

Age

What are the two main types of stroke?

Ischemic and hemorrhagic

What is the most common disability resulting from stroke?

Communication limitations

What is the primary focus of primary prevention for stroke?

Targeting hypertension

What percentage of strokes are accounted for by hemorrhagic strokes?

15%

What are the two subcategories of ischemic strokes?

Thrombotic and embolic

What are the post-stroke complications mentioned in the text?

Depression, CAD, hypertension

What factors affect participation post-stroke?

Physical severity, comorbidities, mental state

What does primary prevention for stroke target?

Hypertension, CVD, smoking

What does stroke classification consider?

Cause, severity, duration

What does aerobic exercise testing post-stroke involve?

Gradual intensity increase, termination criteria

Study Notes

Neuroplasticity: Key Concepts and Applications

  • Rats in enriched environments showed thicker cortices compared to those in basic environments
  • Historical milestones in neuroplasticity, including Hubel and Wiesel's study on brain activity and Merzenich's findings on cortical reorganization
  • Eleanor Maguire's documentation of changes in the hippocampus of London taxi drivers
  • Definition of neuroplasticity as the nervous system's ability to reorganize its structure and function in response to stimuli
  • Neuroplasticity can occur at molecular, cellular, system, and behavioral levels and during various stages like development or after therapy
  • Mechanisms of neuroplasticity, including changes in neurons, between neurons, and in networks of neurons
  • Neuroplasticity is activity-dependent, with the principle "neurons that fire together, wire together"
  • Neuroplasticity in development involves brain growth, critical periods, and ongoing neurogenesis in specific brain areas
  • Applications of neuroplasticity, such as in cerebellar agenesis, stroke rehabilitation, and hemispherectomy
  • Adverse examples of neuroplasticity, including chronic pain after limb amputation and theories about phantom limb sensations
  • The role of neurotrophins like BDNF in neuroplasticity, particularly in motor learning and memory after stroke
  • The potential for neuroplasticity in various clinical scenarios, such as blindness and severe epilepsy, and its unknown degree in adults

Neuroplasticity: Key Concepts and Applications

  • Rats in enriched environments showed thicker cortices compared to those in basic environments
  • Historical milestones in neuroplasticity, including Hubel and Wiesel's study on brain activity and Merzenich's findings on cortical reorganization
  • Eleanor Maguire's documentation of changes in the hippocampus of London taxi drivers
  • Definition of neuroplasticity as the nervous system's ability to reorganize its structure and function in response to stimuli
  • Neuroplasticity can occur at molecular, cellular, system, and behavioral levels and during various stages like development or after therapy
  • Mechanisms of neuroplasticity, including changes in neurons, between neurons, and in networks of neurons
  • Neuroplasticity is activity-dependent, with the principle "neurons that fire together, wire together"
  • Neuroplasticity in development involves brain growth, critical periods, and ongoing neurogenesis in specific brain areas
  • Applications of neuroplasticity, such as in cerebellar agenesis, stroke rehabilitation, and hemispherectomy
  • Adverse examples of neuroplasticity, including chronic pain after limb amputation and theories about phantom limb sensations
  • The role of neurotrophins like BDNF in neuroplasticity, particularly in motor learning and memory after stroke
  • The potential for neuroplasticity in various clinical scenarios, such as blindness and severe epilepsy, and its unknown degree in adults

Neuroplasticity: Key Concepts and Applications

  • Rats in enriched environments displayed thicker cortices compared to those in basic environments.
  • In 1964, Hubel and Wiesel found that brain regions adapted to process information from the open eye when the other was closed.
  • In 1984, Merzenich observed neighboring digits invading the region of a removed digit in the sensory cortex.
  • In 1997, Maguire documented changes in hippocampal structure in London taxi drivers acquiring knowledge of the city's road layout.
  • Neuroplasticity refers to the nervous system's ability to reorganize its structure, function, and connections in response to stimuli.
  • It can occur at molecular, cellular, system, and behavioral levels, during development, in response to the environment, during disease, or after therapy.
  • The developing brain exhibits a higher degree of plasticity.
  • Mechanisms of neuroplasticity include changes in individual neurons, between two neurons, and in a network of neurons.
  • Neuroplasticity is activity-dependent, with the principle that "neurons that fire together, wire together."
  • Most brain growth after birth occurs in the cerebral cortex, mainly from axon proliferation and elaboration.
  • Applications of neuroplasticity include cerebellar agenesis, neurotrophins and stroke, hemispherectomy, and adaptive and maladaptive examples.
  • Maladaptive examples of neuroplasticity include chronic pain following limb amputation, with theories about the reorganization of the somatosensory cortex.

Stroke: Types, Complications, Risk Factors, and Exercise Considerations

  • Stroke events have plateaued after decreasing, with 7x greater risk for indigenous populations
  • Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are the two main types, both leading to CNS damage
  • Common disabilities resulting from stroke include communication and mobility limitations
  • Ischemic strokes account for 85% and are further subcategorized into thrombotic and embolic
  • Hemorrhagic strokes, less common at 15%, involve bleeding into the brain tissue or cranium
  • Post-stroke complications include depression, CAD, hypertension, T2DM, obesity, and falls
  • Non-modifiable stroke risk factors include age, gender, blood pathologies, and circadian factors
  • Primary prevention focuses on targeting hypertension, CVD, smoking, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia
  • Stroke classification considers cause, severity, duration, and symptoms
  • Clinical presentations of stroke include impairments in motor, sensory, language, perception, and affective/mood
  • Factors affecting participation post-stroke include physical severity, comorbidities, mental state, and social support
  • Aerobic exercise testing post-stroke involves pre-screening, gradual intensity increase, and termination criteria

Test your knowledge of neuroplasticity with this quiz covering key concepts and applications. Explore the mechanisms, historical milestones, and examples of neuroplasticity, as well as its potential applications in various clinical scenarios. See how much you know about the brain's remarkable ability to reorganize itself in response to stimuli.

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