Molecular Genetics Lecture 3

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47 Questions

Which molecule carries instructions from DNA to the rest of the ribosome?

mRNA

Which site on the ribosome is responsible for the initiation of protein synthesis?

P site

Which of the following is NOT a step in protein synthesis?

Translation

What is the role of tRNA in protein synthesis?

Brings in new amino acids to match codons

Which type of RNA is part of the structure of a ribosome?

rRNA

What is the end product of protein synthesis?

A primary structure of a protein

Which of the following is true about amino acids?

They are encoded directly by the codons of the universal genetic code

What are peptides?

Short polymer chains formed by amino acids

What is a codon?

A sequence of three nucleotides that form a unit of genetic code

Which of the following is true about the genetic code?

It can be decoded unambiguously from protein sequence

What are stop codons?

Codons that signal the end of a sequence

Which of the following is a characteristic of Type 1 diabetes?

Insulin independence

What type of mutation occurs when there is a change in the base that leads to a change in the amino acid?

Missense mutation

Which of the following diseases is caused by a frameshift mutation?

Hemoglobin Wayne

Which antibiotic inhibits the initiation of protein synthesis in prokaryotes?

Streptomycin

Which antibiotic binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit in prokaryotes?

Erythromycin

Which antibiotic inhibits the incoming tRNA to the A site at the 30S subunit in prokaryotes?

Tetracycline

Which antibiotic acts as a premature terminator of protein synthesis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Puromycin

Which of the following antibiotics can affect mitochondrial eukaryotic RNA processes?

Chloramphenicol

What is the role of the P site on the ribosome during protein synthesis?

Initiation

Which of the following is NOT a R- group modification that can occur to a protein precursor?

Glycosylation

What can C-peptide levels help determine in patients with diabetes?

Insulin production

Which of the following is true about peptide bonds?

Peptide bonds form between amino acids

Which of the following is true about stop codons?

Stop codons are sequences of three nucleotides

Which of the following is true about C-peptide levels in Type 1 diabetes?

A very low C-peptide level confirms Type 1 diabetes and insulin dependence.

Which type of mutation is caused by the alteration in the 3rd base of a codon?

Silent mutation

Which antibiotic acts as a premature terminator of protein synthesis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Puromycin

Which antibiotics bind to the 30S subunit of the ribosome?

Aminoglycosides and Tetracyclines

Which of the following diseases is caused by a nonsense genetic codon change resulting in a mutation in proteins?

a-thalassemia

Which of the following is true about essential amino acids?

Essential amino acids must be obtained from the diet

What is a peptide bond?

A peptide bond is a short polymer chain of amino acids

What are the three stop codons?

UAA, UGA, UAG

Which of the following is true about the large and small subunit of ribosomes in prokaryotes?

The large subunit is 50S and the small subunit is 30S

Which of the following is true about the large and small subunits of ribosomes in eukaryotes?

The large subunit is 60S and the small subunit is 40S

Which of the following is true about the end products of protein synthesis?

They are primary structures of proteins

Which of the following antibiotics binds to the 30S subunit of the ribosome?

Streptomycin

What is the consequence of a very low C-peptide level in a patient?

All of the above

Which type of mutation is characterized by a change in the base leading to a change in the amino acid?

Missense mutation

Which antibiotic inhibits the elongation step of protein synthesis in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria?

Chloramphenicol

Which of the following is a consequence of using prokaryotic antibiotics on mitochondrial eukaryotic RNA processes?

Mitochondrial dysfunction

Which of the following is a characteristic of a nonsense mutation?

Formation of a premature termination codon

Which of the following antibiotics acts as a premature terminator of protein synthesis by mimicking tRNA and binding to the A site?

Puromycin

All positively charged except?

Serine

A basic amino structure consists of a central alpha carbon covalently bonded to a carboxyl group, an amine group, a hydrogen, and a variable R group.

True

Translation consumes 90% of the cells energy using 4 ATP per amino acid

True

where does "O" linked glycosylation occur? and with what amino acids?

Serine/ Threonine in golgi

constant spring is caused by?

glutamine at 142

Test your knowledge on the building blocks of proteins with this quiz on amino acids. Learn about the 20 biologically active amino acids and their role in protein synthesis. Discover the essential amino acids and their importance in human biology.

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