Microbiology Chapter 3 Quiz

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22 Questions

What is the origin of the urinary bladder?

Seno urogenital (Porción distal)

What is the origin of the ureter?

Seno urogenital (Porción distal)

What is the function of the nephron segment that is permeable to water?

Rama delgada descendente del asa de Henle

What is the function of the macula densa cells?

To monitor sodium concentrations

What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

To monitor electrolyte concentrations

What is the function of the theca interna cells?

To secrete androgens

What is the site of fertilization?

Uterine tube

What is the layer of the uterus that comes into contact with the embryo during implantation?

Decidua basal

What is the role of prolactina in lactation?

Production of milk

Which hormone is responsible for milk expulsion?

Oxitocina

What is the function of células de sartoli?

Endocrine function

What is the role of the plexo pampiniforme?

Cooling of blood

What is the function of the vesícula seminal?

Secretion of fructose

What is the term for the liberation of spermatozoa into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule?

Spermiación

In which week of development do the organs begin to develop?

Fourth or fifth week

From which structure or layer do the primordial germ cells originate?

Epiblast

What determines whether an individual develops male or female sexual characteristics?

GEN SRY

In which week does the gonad begin to differentiate?

Seventh week

In males, what begins to develop from the mesonephric duct?

Conducto mesonefrico

What gives rise to the Fallopian tubes and the uterus?

Conducto paramesonefrico

What is the result of the failure of the distal part of the paramesonephric ducts to fuse?

Utero bicorne

What is the origin of the labia minora?

Pliiegues ureterales

Study Notes

Embryonic Development

  • Organs start to develop in the fourth or fifth week of gestation
  • Germ cells migrate from the epiblast to the abdominal cavity, forming the gonad
  • Primordial germ cells originate from the epiblast
  • Germ cells settle in the gonad in the fifth week of development

Sexual Differentiation

  • The SRY gene determines male sexual characteristics
  • In the seventh week, the gonad begins to differentiate
  • In males, the mesonephric duct develops
  • In females, the paramesonephric duct develops
  • The mesonephric duct forms the entire male reproductive system
  • The paramesonephric duct gives rise to the fallopian tubes and uterus

Reproductive System Development

  • The union of the two paramesonephric ducts forms the uterus
  • The fusion of the ducts can result in uterine anomalies, such as a bicornuate uterus
  • The genital tubercle gives rise to the phallus (in males) and clitoris (in females)
  • Genital swellings give rise to the scrotum (in males) and labia (in females)
  • The urogenital sinus gives rise to the lower portion of the vagina and the urethra

Urinary System Development

  • The nephron is composed of two systems: the collector system (mesonephros) and the excretory system (metanephros)
  • The collector system develops from the ureteric bud
  • The excretory system develops from the metanephros
  • The bladder and urethra develop from the urogenital sinus
  • The kidney develops from the metanephros and the ureteric bud

Kidney Function

  • The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney
  • The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs glucose
  • The thin descending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to water
  • The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to potassium, sodium, and chloride
  • The distal convoluted tubule absorbs bicarbonate
  • Macula densa cells monitor sodium concentrations
  • The juxtaglomerular apparatus regulates fluid and electrolyte balance
  • The kidney has an endocrine function, producing renin and erythropoietin

Ovary and Follicle Development

  • Follicles develop in response to gonadotropins
  • The primary follicle is the first stage of follicle development
  • Granulosa cells originate from follicle cells
  • Theca cells originate from the stromal compartment
  • Theca cells have receptors for luteinizing hormone
  • Granulosa cells have receptors for follicle-stimulating hormone
  • Oocyte maturation occurs in the secondary follicle
  • Theca cells produce androgens in response to luteinizing hormone

Uterus and Placenta

  • The uterus has three layers: endometrium, perimetrium, and myometrium
  • The decidua basalis forms the maternal component of the placenta
  • The placenta develops from the decidua basalis and the chorion
  • Implantation occurs during the "window of implantation"

Breast Development

  • Breast development is stimulated by estrogen
  • Prolactin stimulates milk production
  • Oxytocin stimulates milk letdown

Male Reproductive System

  • The testicular mediastinum communicates with the epididymis through the efferent ductules
  • Sertoli cells have an endocrine function
  • Leydig cells produce testosterone
  • Spermatogonia produce spermatozoa
  • Spermatocytes undergo meiosis to form spermatids
  • Spermiogenesis is the process of forming spermatozoa from spermatids
  • The pampiniform plexus cools the blood
  • The seminal vesicle produces fructose
  • The prostate gland produces acid phosphatase, prostaglandin, and prostate-specific antigen

This quiz covers key concepts in microbiology, including the development of organs, migration of cells, and the origin of cells. It's a must-take for anyone studying microbiology.

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