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Marketing Unit 6: Personality and Consumer Behaviour

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20 Questions

What does psychographics use to group consumers?

AIOs (Activities, Interests, Opinions)

What do demographics allow marketers to describe about consumers?

Who buys a product

Psychographic segmentation is used to define target markets.

True

The 20/80 rule states that about 20% of consumers in a product category account for __% of sales.

80

How can personality be defined?

Personality can be defined as the qualities and traits that define the character or behavior of a specific person.

What are some traits of interest to marketers according to Trait Theory?

All of the above

Trait Theory is problematic in marketing because researchers always agree on which traits to measure.

False

According to Freud, the self is divided into three categories: the id, the ego, and the ________.

superego

Match the brand personality dimension with its description:

Innovative, unique, creative = Apple Macintosh brand Strong, favorable, unique association = Brand Identity Distinctive, stands out = Brand Personality

How is personality defined?

Personality can be defined as the qualities and traits that define the character or behavior of a specific person.

What are some traits interesting to marketers as per Trait Theory?

Need for recognition

Brand identity is developed to get negative brand equity.

False

According to Freud, the __________ doesn't care about reality; it wants what it wants.

id

Match the following brand archetypes with their characteristics:

The Regular Guy/The EveryMan = Represented by Bud Light The Hero = Represented by Harley Davidson The Magician/Catalyst = Represented by Axe The Caregiver = Represented by a nurturing archetype

What is the purpose of demographics in marketing?

Describe who buys a product

What is the purpose of psychographics in marketing?

Understand why they buy a product

What are AIOs used for in psychographic research?

Identifying lifestyle profiles

The 20/80 rule states that roughly 80% of sales come from 80% of consumers.

False

Geodemography combines data on consumer expenditures with ______ information.

geographic

Match the VALS category with its corresponding description:

Innovators = Successful consumers concerned socially, open to change Thinkers = Satisfied, reflective, practical, value function Achievers = Career oriented and prefers predictability Experiencers = Impulsive, young, enjoys offbeat experiences

Study Notes

Personality

  • Personality is unique to each individual and influences our responses to our environment
  • It can be defined as the qualities and traits that define the character or behavior of a specific person
  • Psychologists look at personality by examining what traits people report or demonstrate, as well as the context of the behavior
  • Marketers want to understand personality to segment consumers based on activities, tastes, and lifestyles (psychographics)

Trait Theory

  • Researchers use Trait Theory to study personality
  • Traits are identifiable characteristics that define a person, such as extroversion versus introversion
  • Traits interesting to marketers include innovation, materialism, self-consciousness, and need for recognition
  • However, measuring traits can be problematic due to disagreements on which traits to measure and the reliability of measurement scales

Brand Personality

  • Brands can be seen as having personality, with characteristics such as innovative, unique, and creative
  • Marketers work to develop a brand identity to create positive brand equity
  • Brand equity is the extent to which a consumer holds a strong, favorable, and unique association with the brand
  • Examples of brand personalities include Apple's "Think Different" campaign and Nike's "Just Do It" slogan

Freud and Consumer Behaviour

  • Sigmund Freud believed that behavior is influenced by unconscious desires and the conflict between the id, ego, and superego
  • The id seeks immediate gratification, the ego considers reality, and the superego is the moral compass
  • Freud's theories have been applied to marketing, including the use of motivational research to understand consumer motivations
  • Ernst Dichter, a student of Freud, applied Freudian theories to advertising, including the use of symbolic and unconscious appeals

Carl Jung and Archetypes

  • Carl Jung, a colleague of Freud, believed in the collective unconscious and the existence of universal archetypes
  • Archetypes are innate, universal prototypes for ideas, such as the Mother, Hero, and Trickster
  • Archetypes appear frequently in advertising and branding, and can be used to interpret observations and create effective marketing campaigns

Animism and Anthropomorphism

  • Animism is the idea that inanimate objects can be given human characteristics
  • Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics to non-human entities, such as animals or objects
  • Both animism and anthropomorphism are used in advertising to create memorable and engaging campaigns, such as the Pillsbury Dough Boy and the Geico Gecko

Lifestyles and Psychographics

  • Lifestyle defines who we are and who we are not, and is not fixed, but evolves over time
  • Psychographics is the study of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors to understand consumer behavior
  • Demographics describe who buys a product, while psychographics explain why they buy it
  • AIOs (Activities, Interests, and Opinions) are used to group consumers based on their characteristics and behavior

VALS (Values and Lifestyles) Survey

  • The VALS survey is a psychographic segmentation system that categorizes consumers into clusters based on their values and lifestyles
  • The main categories are Innovators, Thinkers, Achievers, Experiencers, Believers, Strivers, Makers, and Survivors
  • Each category is further divided into sub-categories based on resources and innovation

Geodemography

  • Geodemography combines data on consumer expenditures and socioeconomic factors with geographic information on areas where people live
  • The idea is that "birds of a feather flock together," and geographic location can reveal a lot about consumer lifestyle and preferences
  • Geodemography is used to understand consumer behavior and develop targeted marketing campaigns

Personality

  • Personality is unique to each individual and influences our responses to our environment
  • It can be defined as the qualities and traits that define the character or behavior of a specific person
  • Psychologists look at personality by examining what traits people report or demonstrate, as well as the context of the behavior
  • Marketers want to understand personality to segment consumers based on activities, tastes, and lifestyles (psychographics)

Trait Theory

  • Researchers use Trait Theory to study personality
  • Traits are identifiable characteristics that define a person, such as extroversion versus introversion
  • Traits interesting to marketers include innovation, materialism, self-consciousness, and need for recognition
  • However, measuring traits can be problematic due to disagreements on which traits to measure and the reliability of measurement scales

Brand Personality

  • Brands can be seen as having personality, with characteristics such as innovative, unique, and creative
  • Marketers work to develop a brand identity to create positive brand equity
  • Brand equity is the extent to which a consumer holds a strong, favorable, and unique association with the brand
  • Examples of brand personalities include Apple's "Think Different" campaign and Nike's "Just Do It" slogan

Freud and Consumer Behaviour

  • Sigmund Freud believed that behavior is influenced by unconscious desires and the conflict between the id, ego, and superego
  • The id seeks immediate gratification, the ego considers reality, and the superego is the moral compass
  • Freud's theories have been applied to marketing, including the use of motivational research to understand consumer motivations
  • Ernst Dichter, a student of Freud, applied Freudian theories to advertising, including the use of symbolic and unconscious appeals

Carl Jung and Archetypes

  • Carl Jung, a colleague of Freud, believed in the collective unconscious and the existence of universal archetypes
  • Archetypes are innate, universal prototypes for ideas, such as the Mother, Hero, and Trickster
  • Archetypes appear frequently in advertising and branding, and can be used to interpret observations and create effective marketing campaigns

Animism and Anthropomorphism

  • Animism is the idea that inanimate objects can be given human characteristics
  • Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human characteristics to non-human entities, such as animals or objects
  • Both animism and anthropomorphism are used in advertising to create memorable and engaging campaigns, such as the Pillsbury Dough Boy and the Geico Gecko

Lifestyles and Psychographics

  • Lifestyle defines who we are and who we are not, and is not fixed, but evolves over time
  • Psychographics is the study of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors to understand consumer behavior
  • Demographics describe who buys a product, while psychographics explain why they buy it
  • AIOs (Activities, Interests, and Opinions) are used to group consumers based on their characteristics and behavior

VALS (Values and Lifestyles) Survey

  • The VALS survey is a psychographic segmentation system that categorizes consumers into clusters based on their values and lifestyles
  • The main categories are Innovators, Thinkers, Achievers, Experiencers, Believers, Strivers, Makers, and Survivors
  • Each category is further divided into sub-categories based on resources and innovation

Geodemography

  • Geodemography combines data on consumer expenditures and socioeconomic factors with geographic information on areas where people live
  • The idea is that "birds of a feather flock together," and geographic location can reveal a lot about consumer lifestyle and preferences
  • Geodemography is used to understand consumer behavior and develop targeted marketing campaigns

Explore the concept of personality in consumer behavior, including its definition, influence on responses, and impact on individual character and behavior.

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