16_Spinal Cord and Nerves and ANS
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16_Spinal Cord and Nerves and ANS

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Questions and Answers

Which spinal nerve plexus innervates the head and neck?

Cervical plexus

Which spinal nerve plexus innervates the arms?

Brachial plexus

Which spinal nerve plexus innervates the pelvic region and anterior leg?

Lumbar plexus

Which spinal nerve plexus innervates the posterior leg?

<p>Sacral plexus</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which nerve innervates the diaphragm and is responsible for breathing?

<p>Phrenic nerve</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the largest nerve in the body that extends from the sacral plexus?

<p>Sciatic nerve</p> Signup and view all the answers

What are dermatomes?

<p>Sensory fibers with endings in the skin</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is NOT a function of the spinal cord?

<p>Protection of the spinal cord</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which of the following is the correct order of the spinal meninges from outermost to innermost?

<p>Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where is the epidural space located?

<p>Between the bone and dura mater</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the subarachnoid space?

<p>Filling with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where does the spinal cord end?

<p>At the beginning of the lumbar vertebrae</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cranial nerve(s) control(s) the facial organs in the parasympathetic nervous system?

<p>Facial nerve (CN VII)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where are the parasympathetic ganglia located in relation to the target effector organ?

<p>Near the target effector organ</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the term used to describe the balanced input from the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions in organ systems?

<p>Autonomic tone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for vasodilation in blood vessels to skeletal muscles?

<p>Sympathetic division</p> Signup and view all the answers

What effect does the parasympathetic division have on the bronchi of the lungs?

<p>Constriction</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the spinal cord contains the cell bodies of somatic motor neurons?

<p>Anterior horn</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the dorsal (posterior) root ganglion?

<p>Contains unipolar neurons surrounded by satellite cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which part of the spinal cord innervates the upper limbs?

<p>Cervical enlargement</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the gray commissure in the spinal cord?

<p>Contains unmyelinated axons for communication between the left and right sides of the spinal cord</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of the ventral (anterior) root of a spinal nerve?

<p>Emerges as the motor fibers</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which motor neurons degenerate or die in ALS?

<p>Both upper and lower motor neurons</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the most common cause of SMA?

<p>Defects in the survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1)</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which muscles are more severely affected in SMA?

<p>Trunk and upper leg and arm muscles</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which division of the autonomic nervous system prepares for emergencies?

<p>Sympathetic division</p> Signup and view all the answers

Where are the preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division located?

<p>Nuclei of brainstem and lateral horn of sacral spinal cord</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The spinal cord carries motor information to the brain.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The spinal cord is housed within the spinal meninges.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The spinal dura mater is composed of multiple layers of connective tissue.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The epidural space around the spinal cord contains adipose tissue.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The conus medullaris is located at the end of the thoracic region of the spinal cord.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The spinal cord is longer than the vertebral canal that houses it?

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The long bundle of nerves inferior to the conus medullaris is called cauda equina?

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The gray matter is external and white matter is internal in the spinal cord?

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The anterior horn contains the cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons?

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The lumbosacral enlargement of the spinal cord innervates the upper limbs?

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The spinal nerves split into two branches called rami.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The ventral ramus innervates the deep muscle and skin of the back.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The spinal nerves carry both sensory and motor information.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The cervical plexus innervates the head and neck.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The brachial plexus is formed by spinal nerves T5 - T12.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: ALS is a condition where only the upper motor neurons degenerate or die?

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: SMA is caused by defects in the survival motor neuron 1 gene?

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The somatic nervous system is responsible for involuntary motor orders to cardiac and smooth muscles?

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system prepares the body for emergencies?

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: Parasympathetic ganglia are located in the nuclei of the brainstem and lateral horn of the sacral spinal cord?

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: Dermatomes are important in a clinical setting as they can help identify potential damage to spinal nerves.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: Monosynaptic reflexes involve at least two synapses.

<p>False</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: Preganglionic neurons can connect to intramural ganglia located within the target organ.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: The parasympathetic ganglia are located close to the target effector organ, resulting in long preganglionic fibers and short postganglionic fibers.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: Autonomic tone refers to the balance between input from the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions in organ systems.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: Many effector organs of the autonomic nervous system have dual innervation, receiving inputs from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

True or false: In some cases, the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system can have cooperative effects.

<p>True</p> Signup and view all the answers

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